High-quality career and technical education programs offered by community and technical colleges can offer students a path to well-paying careers. Many of these programs shifted online because of the coronavirus pandemic, and many will remain online. Structural racism and other systemic inequalities can limit access to and success in online career and technical education programs for students of color,

March 8, 2021
Brief
 

The COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing recession, as well as racial injustices and protest responses throughout 2020, have highlighted that public policies can have very different impacts on populations by race or ethnicity. Tax policies, in particular, are commonly perceived as “race neutral,” often because information on race or ethnicity is not solicited in tax collections or explicitly referenced in those

March 8, 2021
Brief
 

In this brief, we examine how Social Security proposals could eliminate poverty and relative poverty (defined as having low income relative to average wages in the economy) for older adults and people who receive Social Security Disability Insurance benefits. We add a basic minimum benefit to three prominent Social Security proposals that as currently designed would increase or maintain relative poverty over

March 4, 2021
Brief
 

The past few decades have brought about a profound shift in the norms and narratives surrounding smaller-scale charitable giving and larger-scale philanthropic giving. In this report, I analyze some of the most significant of those norms and narratives—that is, the rules governing accepted or valued charitable and philanthropic behavior and the replicable, archetypal stories that have developed to make sense of

March 4, 2021
Research Report
 

The federal student aid system has emerged as the primary source of funding for students pursuing a wide range of subbaccalaureate credentials. But the eligibility rules for federal student aid, offered under Title IV of the Higher Education Act, require a minimum program length of 600 hours for Pell grants, despite little evidence showing that short programs meeting the current benchmark produce better labor-

March 4, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

Postsecondary education can be a critical step toward financial independence. Total college costs in California may present an extraordinary financial burden. For students with incomes under $30,000 in California, the cost of attendance at public universities (after accounting for existing grant aid) consumes about half of a person’s household income. Extending the maximum California earned income tax credit (

March 3, 2021
Brief
 

In October 2020, the Urban Institute hosted a roundtable of leading experts to discuss how the US cares for older adults in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants highlighted key areas for reform and identified potential improvements. These included redesigning Medicaid; creating a strong foundation for home- and community-based services; integrating medical care and long-term services and

March 2, 2021
Brief
 

School segregation is one of the most enduring inequities in US public education, reinforcing racial and ethnic gaps in academic and socioeconomic outcomes. School boundaries, whether between districts or between schools within a district, often help perpetuate school segregation in otherwise racially and ethnically diverse cities and neighborhoods. To understand which school boundaries contribute most to

March 2, 2021
Research Report
 

The performance of the federal-state Unemployment Insurance (UI) system in past recessions holds potential lessons for the UI system in supporting workers through the COVID-19 crisis and beyond. This brief identifies themes from research on the Great Recession about how UI can cover more workers, including findings related to the UI modernization provisions of the Recovery Act of 2009 and efforts that expanded

March 2, 2021
Brief
 

Among the major policies supporting workers through the COVID-19 crisis is the federal-state Unemployment Insurance (UI) system, which provides cash benefits to those who lose their jobs or, in some cases, lose work hours. This brief identifies themes from research on the Great Recession about extending UI benefits, including findings related to the standing Extended Benefits and temporary Emergency Unemployment

March 2, 2021
Brief
 

Introduction The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) provides substantial support for working families with low and moderate incomes, including those who may participate in traditional safety net programs, such as TANF. Based on incomes in 2019, the Tax Policy Center estimates that more than 27 million households qualified for almost $67 billion in reduced taxes and payments. The Center on Budget and Policy

February 26, 2021
Research Report
 

The February 2021 edition of At A Glance,  HFPC’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing first lien origination volume, the share of loans in serious delinquency or foreclosure, spreads on GSE risk transfer securities, and a special feature on loan-level GSE credit data. Housing Finance at a Glance: Monthly Chartbooks Archive

February 25, 2021
Research Report
 

The Urban Institute’s formative evaluation of Love Your Block describes how the program and Cities of Service, the program’s funder, affect neighborhood-level remediation of vacant and abandoned properties, city government collaboration, and resident engagement. Love Your Block connects mayors’ offices with city residents to revitalize their neighborhoods one block at a time. The Love Your Block model involves

February 25, 2021
Research Report
 

This study explores vaccine hesitancy among nonelderly adults with new data from the Urban Institute’s Well-Being and Basic Needs Survey (WBNS), a nationally representative survey of more than 7,500 adults ages 18 to 64 fielded December 8 through 30, 2020. We find the following: In December 2020, more than one-third of nonelderly adults reported they would probably not or definitely not get a COVID-19 vaccine

February 25, 2021
Brief
 

Decades of inequities in access to capital and other resources have put Latino and immigrant entrepreneurs at a disadvantage, which has been exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Between February and April 2020, active business ownership declined 17 percent among white entrepreneurs. However, reductions in active businesses owned by Latinos and those owned by immigrants were even larger: 32 percent and 36

February 25, 2021
Research Report
 

America has built starkly unequal communities, systematically excluding Black people and other people of color from places rich with resources and opportunities, while depriving the communities in which they live from essential investments, services, and supports. Place-conscious initiatives—which put people at the center of strategies to restore disinvested communities—can help tackle these persistent

February 24, 2021
Brief
 

This update of a 2016 brief shows that the combined size of the upper middle class and rich grew from 31 to 39 percent of independent adults (heads of household spouses, and roommates) from 2014 to 2019. It also shows that this group in 2019 was mainly composed of married couples, non-Hispanic whites, and those with four-year or graduate degrees.

February 24, 2021
Brief
 

The changes that Trump administration officials made to the preferred Stock Purchase Agreements (PSPAs) – the contracts that govern Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac’s relationship with the US Treasury - would restrict the volume of “high risk” loans they can purchase, as well as the volume of second homes and investor properties. These changes will likely prove binding once the current refinance wave ends and, they

February 23, 2021
Brief
 

Food insecurity in children is a major challenge in the United States, especially during the current Covid-19 pandemic.  According to the U.S. Census Bureau, “At the national level, the Household Pulse Survey data indicate that about 11.8 million children live in households that missed a mortgage or rent payment or sought a deferment, while roughly 3.9 million children are experiencing COVID-19 induced food

February 23, 2021
Research Report
 

Over the past 60 years, significant progress has been made toward promoting social equity in both the public and the private sectors in the United States. Prominent examples include actions on civil rights, women’s rights, poverty reduction, and gender equality; and this progress has been hard won. But continued progress remains uneven and, in some cases, has regressed. The roller coaster can be partially

February 23, 2021
Research Report
 

In May 2017, Tipping Point Community, a Bay Area nonprofit organization, launched a $100 million initiative to halve chronic homelessness in San Francisco in five years. Tipping Point’s Chronic Homelessness Initiative(CHI) is the largest private investment to address homelessness in the city’s history. To reach its goal, CHI is relying on three strategies: (1) increasing placements of people experiencing

February 23, 2021
Brief
 

In this brief, we analyze a policy that would expand Marketplace premium tax credits by raising the eligibility cutoff from 400 to 600 percent of the federal poverty level (FPL). The policy would lessen the financial burden of high premiums for such families and increase Marketplace enrollment for this group. A potential drawback, however, is that some employers might stop offering employer-sponsored insurance

February 22, 2021
Brief
 

Health care is critically important as young adults transition from adolescence, building a foundation for their long-term health in adulthood. Yet, young adults ages 19 to 25 have historically had limited access to both employer-sponsored insurance and public insurance coverage, resulting in the highest rates of uninsurance among all age groups before passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We examine changes

February 18, 2021
Research Report
 

Over seven years, local partnerships in Buffalo, New York, Columbus, Ohio, and San Antonio, Texas, embarked on an initiative focused on high-poverty neighborhoods with long histories of economic disinvestment. The Family-Centered Community Change (FCCC) initiative, with support from the Annie E. Casey Foundation, developed integrated services for communities—including education and care for children and job

February 18, 2021
Research Report
 

Financial health reflects residents’ ability to manage their daily finances, be resilient to economic shocks, and pursue opportunities for upward mobility. Credit health is an important component of overall financial health, in addition to savings, income, and wealth. During economic crises like the COVID-19 pandemic, financially healthy residents can better weather the storm, help stabilize city finances, and

February 17, 2021
Presentation