Introduction 2M Research and the Urban Institute, in partnership with the Administration for Children and Families and Health Resources and Services Administration, are conducting a mixed-methods study to assess the challenges and opportunities for administering human services programs in rural contexts. How we define “rural” affects how we design and execute the study, as well as what the findings mean and how

January 14, 2022
Brief
 

Atlanta’s East Lake Initiative—a comprehensive community initiative—has directly invested or leveraged more than $600 million into the East Lake community since 1995. One of nation’s first efforts to convert public housing into a mixed-income community, the initiative has three pillars: physical redevelopment, cradle-to-college education, and community wellness supports. This report uses the synthetic control

January 13, 2022
Research Report
 

Federal, state, and local government officials are increasingly paying attention to reforms of fines and fees. These constitute a small share of total revenues, but they can be particularly harmful because of unjust policing and sentencing practices. This research report first explores how much is raised from all fines, fees, and forfeitures, highlighting places that rely most on them. We then study state-level

January 13, 2022
Research Report
 

San Diego’s City Heights Initiative—a comprehensive community initiative—has directly invested or leveraged more than $200 million into the City Heights community since 1995. One of nation's oldest and largest place-based efforts, the Initiative has five focus areas: retail and community facilities; education, youth services, and scholarships; public safety and beautification; housing; and employment and human

January 13, 2022
Research Report
 

About half of small-firm employees worked in establishments that offered health insurance from 2013 to 2020, whereas more than 99 percent of large-firm employees worked in establishments that offered coverage. Yet, we find that the small-group market continues to serve as an important source of health insurance for many workers. Since the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the small-group market

January 13, 2022
Brief
 

As COVID-19 rates rise again with the emergence of the omicron variant and roil school reopening plans, local educational leaders are faced with tough decisions about school policies. Though arguably these decisions should be informed by science, administrators must also consider how parents will respond. As the pandemic persists and new variants emerge, the partisan divide over COVID-19 mitigation strategies

January 13, 2022
Brief
 

An effective, sustainable, and equitable transportation system is key to the economic, social, and environmental health of residents of the United States. However, the US has focused its transportation investments on automobility, at the expense of sustainable transportation options that expand access to opportunity for families with low incomes and people of color. A new federal place-based transportation

January 13, 2022
Research Report
 

Many states have enacted comprehensive justice system reforms to reduce the use of incarceration and community supervision with the aim of focusing resources on people at higher risk of reoffending and investing in strategies to achieve better outcomes for people and communities. Missouri (in 2012) and Oregon (in 2013) passed legislation to implement earned discharge from supervision for people who fulfill their

January 12, 2022
Research Report
 

Many states have enacted comprehensive justice system reforms to reduce the use of incarceration and community supervision with the aim of focusing resources on people at higher risk of reoffending and investing in strategies to achieve better outcomes for people and communities. In 2017, Louisiana and Georgia passed legislation to reduce probation sentence lengths. We conducted interviews with stakeholders and

January 12, 2022
Research Report
 

Many states have enacted comprehensive justice system reforms to reduce the use of incarceration and community supervision with the aim of focusing resources on people at higher risk of reoffending and investing in strategies to achieve better outcomes for people and communities. In 2015, Nebraska and Utah passed legislation to create a structured approach for responding to supervision violations. This included

January 12, 2022
Research Report
 

Public officials at all levels of government and those who manage nonprofit human service organizations need regular, timely information on how well their services are achieving their objectives. Performance management uses performance information to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and equity of public services. But first, managers and their staff members must collect, compile, and interpret that

January 12, 2022
Research Report
 

Parents rely on a range of center- and home-based options for their children’s early care and education (ECE). Providers support children’s early learning and development, and give parents time and space to pursue their own school, work, and training opportunities. Despite these myriad benefits, many families face barriers to accessing care—particularly regulated ECE programs—due to limited supply and high costs

January 12, 2022
Brief
 

Mothers with few economic resources must cope with the ongoing stress of making ends meet while addressing their children’s needs. This exploratory study sought to improve understanding of how women in the United States meet their economic, personal, and social goals and focused on gender equity. We documented the positive, active strategies that mothers with very young children and very few economic resources

January 12, 2022
Research Report
 

Public benefit programs have the potential to help stabilize families when their income drops and can provide support as parents enter or reenter the workforce. As a family’s earnings rise, though, those earnings increases are often offset by declines in public assistance benefits (commonly called “benefit cliffs” when the declines are sharp) and increases in taxes owed. Complex program rules can make it

January 11, 2022
Research Report
 

While extensive research exists, the field lacks a current and translational synthesis of what works to reduce youth group and gun violence. In response, the Urban Institute developed a research-based practice guide to inform local government, law enforcement, and community-violence-intervention stakeholders as they implement new antiviolence interventions and refine existing ones. To inform the development of

January 11, 2022
Research Report
 

To help advance the field’s understanding of what works to effectively address youth group and gun violence, Urban Institute researchers completed an extensive literature synthesis of extant implementation and impact studies. While most studies we reviewed showed the three main types of violence reduction models (focused deterrence, public health, and the Spergel Model of Gang Intervention and Suppression/

January 11, 2022
Research Report
 

In 2010, the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) and the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) launched the Enhanced Collaborative Model (ECM) Task Force to Combat Human Trafficking Program to help communities develop multidisciplinary task forces that employ victim-centered approaches to identify survivors, provide services, and investigate and prosecute all forms of human trafficking. The Evaluation of the Enhanced

January 11, 2022
Research Report
 

Though students of color made up the majority of public school students beginning in fall 2016, teachers of color are severely underrepresented in the teacher workforce, potentially negatively affecting students’ outcomes. Evidence shows the value of a racial match between Black students and Black teachers on several outcomes, but we know much less about these effects for Hispanic students. In this report, we

January 11, 2022
Research Report
 

The US Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of the Treasury solicited comments on the question of whether developments since the departments approved Georgia’s Section 1332 waiver should change the departments’ assessment of whether the Georgia Access Model meets the statutory requirements for Section 1332 waivers, including the requirement that waivers cannot reduce the number of people

January 10, 2022
Public Comment
 

The Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (CRA) was the last of a series of housing-related legislative actions emerging from the Civil Rights era. It was enacted to combat redlining, although race is not mentioned in the original statute. Regulators have used low and moderate incomes (LMI) as a proxy for race with respect to people and neighborhoods. However, as awareness of the racial gaps in homeownership,

January 7, 2022
Research Report
 

Section 1071 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 requires the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) to enhance publicly available small business data. Currently, a lack of a comprehensive database on lending has made it difficult for stakeholders to remove barriers to equitable lending for women- and minority-owned small businesses. We provide suggestions to the CFPB to

January 6, 2022
Public Comment
 

Colorado allocates additional school district funding for “at-risk” students, currently defined as those eligible for free- or reduced-price meals. But this measure may not fully capture economically disadvantaged students who need of extra academic support, and it hinders some school districts from adopting universal meal programs, causing students to lose out on academic, behavioral, and health benefits. This

January 5, 2022
Fact Sheet
 

Colorado allocates additional school district funding for “at-risk” students, currently defined as those eligible for free- or reduced-price meals. But this measure may not fully capture economically disadvantaged students who need of extra academic support, and it hinders some school districts from adopting universal meal programs, causing students to lose out on academic, behavioral, and health benefits. This

January 5, 2022
Research Report
 

The COVID-19 pandemic has added hardships and stress to the burdens parents face in meeting their families’ needs. Parents with low incomes, in particular, have faced greater difficulties meeting their and their families’ basic needs than other parents. In this report, we use data from the April 2021 Health Reform Monitoring Survey to assess health status, health insurance coverage, health care access and

January 5, 2022
Research Report
 

Aspects such as community engagement, partnerships, flexible eligibility criteria, credible messengers, and relationships with law enforcement are critical to successful implementation of youth antiviolence interventions. Urban conducted a scan of practice of 14 interventions intended to reduce youth group and gun violence implemented across the country to learn more about implementing antiviolence strategies

January 3, 2022
Research Report