This guidebook outlines steps for maximizing the impact of correctional surveillance programs on safety for correctional staff and incarcerated persons, including questions decision makers should consider to optimize their surveillance systems. The guide can help agencies identify surveillance goals, consider their systems’ limitations and constraints, and develop strategies for meaningful improvements. We draw

January 15, 2021
Research Report
 

Issue America’s hospitals have been on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has caused financial havoc in the industry. Safety net hospitals disproportionately care for those with low incomes and communities of color, the very groups hardest hit by the pandemic. Those hospitals typically treat a larger share of Medicaid and uninsured patients than other hospitals and thus often operate on thinner

January 14, 2021
Brief
 

Understanding the child care needs of parents working nontraditional hour (NTH) schedule has become a growing concern for policymakers trying to reduce barriers to accessible child care. Families working these schedules can face extra challenges finding child care, and the care arrangements they use are less often supported by public funds. Using data from the 2014–18 American Community Survey and the 2016

January 14, 2021
Brief
 

Understanding the child care needs of parents working nontraditional hour (NTH) schedule has become a growing concern for policymakers trying to reduce barriers to accessible child care. Families working these schedules can face extra challenges finding child care, and the care arrangements they use are less often supported by public funds. Using data from the 2014–18 American Community Survey and the 2016

January 14, 2021
Brief
 

Understanding the child care needs of parents working nontraditional hour (NTH) schedule has become a growing concern for policymakers trying to reduce barriers to accessible child care. Families working these schedules can face extra challenges finding child care, and the care arrangements they use are less often supported by public funds. Using data from the 2014–18 American Community Survey and the 2016

January 14, 2021
Brief
 

States’ decisions to expand Medicaid may have important implications for their hospitals’ financial ability to weather the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study estimated the effects of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion on hospital finances in 2017 to update earlier findings. The analysis also explored how the ACA Medicaid expansion affects different types of hospitals by size,

January 14, 2021
Journal Article
 

Income inequality estimates based on traditional poverty measures do not capture the effects of health care spending and health insurance. To explore the distributional effects of the Affordable Care Act’s (ACA’s) expansion of health benefits and the resulting income inequality, this study used alternative income measures that incorporate the value of the ACA’s health insurance changes under the law. The study

January 14, 2021
Journal Article
 

Disparities in youth employment (including summer youth employment) and disconnection (not in school or working) start early and disproportionally affect people of color. Young people who become disconnected from work and education are at a higher risk of a host of negative life outcomes and are particularly vulnerable to the Covid-19 pandemic. This memo presents an analysis of ongoing and intermittent

January 12, 2021
Brief
 

Students of color have faced a myriad of challenges in 2020 due to the impacts of COVID-19, racial injustice, and the personal fear that either themselves or a loved one may be targeted because of their race. Improving school climate is a necessary component in any effort to improve racial equity. Race too often predicts outcomes such as disciplinary actions, feelings of student connectedness, and a student’s

January 12, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

Housing can be an essential tool for upward mobility, giving families a strong foundation to move out of poverty. Too often, however, housing policy narrowly focuses on economic success as upward mobility’s key indicator. But a person’s power, autonomy, and value in their community are equally essential components. This brief arms communities, practitioners, and policymakers with evidence on how several aspects

January 12, 2021
Research Report
 

Texas is home to approximately 7 million youth under 18, and holds the second largest LGBT youth population in the United States (approx. 195,000). Youth homelessness is a pervasive and understudied problem, and a burgeoning body of research suggests that lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning/queer, gender nonconforming, and transgender (LGBQ/GNCT) youth of color may be particularly vulnerable to housing

January 12, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

Young people are often overlooked in discussions about digital skills gaps because they are considered “digital natives” who do not require digital skills training. Using 2017 data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies survey, this research highlights a number of disparities in digital skill levels among Americans aged 16-24, including that  many older youth have no or

January 12, 2021
Brief
 

Rates of disconnected youth—young people between the ages of 16 and 24 who are not in school or working—are highest among Black, Latino, and American Indian/Native American youth. Disconnection can lead to negative outcomes: greater risk of economic instability, mental health and/or substance use problems, and criminal justice involvement. Using Texas as a use-case, this brief explores where students would be at

January 12, 2021
Brief
 

This memo examines the relationship between the incidence of childhood asthma and substandard housing with a focus on Latine and indigenous households in New Mexico and Arizona. BIPOC households are disproportionately impacted by both asthma incidence and substandard housing. Using state environmental public health tracking databases and Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy data we aimed to better

January 12, 2021
Brief
 

Educational stability is a critical factor in youth involvement in the justice system – particularly among youth of color. In California specifically, school responses to student behavior can serve as nonjudicial drivers of higher rates of incarceration among youth of color. This memo examines county-level arrests and measures of educational stability among California youth, and identifies 10 California counties

January 12, 2021
Brief
 

In this brief, we provide nationally representative estimates of telehealth use among nonelderly adults six months into the COVID-19 pandemic, as of September 2020. We use data from the second wave of the Urban Institute’s Coronavirus Tracking Survey, fielded September 11 through 28, 2020. The survey contained questions about telehealth use, satisfaction with telehealth use, wanting telehealth but not getting it

January 12, 2021
Brief
 

North Carolina changed its supervision revocation policies in 2011 as part of the passage and implementation of the Justice Reinvestment Act, aimed at reducing prison spending and reinvesting savings in more effective public safety strategies. In addition to adding options for responding to supervision violations in the community, North Carolina created Confinement in Response to Violation (CRV) centers to

January 12, 2021
Brief
 

In this report, we present baseline and process study findings of an evaluation of the Urban Alliance High School Internship Program, which provides professional internships, mentorship and coaching, college and career skills training to high school seniors. The report focuses on the program’s operations in Washington, DC, Baltimore, Chicago, and Northern Virginia. It explains the program model and its

January 12, 2021
Research Report
 

This report investigates arguments that justify state preemption of local lawmaking on the basis that local laws produce a harmful “patchwork” of regulations within a state. We examine the use and merits of the patchwork argument across 10 policy areas­, (focusing on paid sick leave, rent control, plastic bag bans and regulations, and antidiscrimination laws) and review the evidence around the patchwork argument

January 7, 2021
Research Report
 

As the United States heads into its tenth month struggling to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus, social distancing is critical. And though having a home is important for social distancing, millions of Americans risk losing theirs when the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) eviction moratorium ends January 31. Eviction and subsequent homelessness or doubling up in and sharing overcrowded

January 5, 2021
Brief
 

This brief is the third of seven toolkit resources supporting the Urban Institute’s formative evaluation of the VictimConnect Resource Center, a nationwide victims’ helpline operated by the National Center for Victims of Crime. The evaluation was conducted in 2019 and 2020 with funding from the National Institute of Justice. In this brief, we describe the activities that Urban’s researchers engaged in to

December 31, 2020
Brief
 

Launched in 2015 by the National Center for Victims of Crime, the VictimConnect Resource Center was the nation’s first (and is still its only) technology-based resource center to offer comprehensive helpline services to victims of all types of crime and their loved ones. In 2019, with funding from the National Institute of Justice, the Urban Institute launched a formative evaluation of VictimConnect in

December 31, 2020
Research Report
 

This brief is the fifth of seven toolkit resources supporting the Urban Institute’s formative evaluation of the VictimConnect Resource Center. The evaluation was conducted in 2019 and 2020 with funding from the National Institute of Justice. In this brief, we identify the goals of the planned outcome evaluation of VictimConnect, highlight the outcomes to be examined from VictimConnect’s logic model, and

December 31, 2020
Brief
 

This brief is the seventh of seven toolkit resources supporting the Urban Institute’s formative evaluation of the VictimConnect Resource Center, a nationwide victims’ helpline operated by the National Center for Victims of Crime. The evaluation was conducted in 2019 and 2020 with funding from the National Institute of Justice. In this brief, we present drafts of the instruments to be used in Urban’s planned

December 31, 2020
Brief