Elisabeth Jacobs, senior fellow, testified before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor, Worker Protections Subcommittee at a hearing on “Balancing Work, Health, and Family: The Case for Expanding the Family and Medical Leave Act.” Her testimony highlighted research on the FMLA and paid leave policies.

February 11, 2020
Testimony
 

Most states provide less generous pensions to teachers hired in 2018 than to teachers hired in 2008. Over the past decade, 43 states raised the contributions that teachers must make to their retirement plan or cut the retirement benefits they will receive. Nearly one-half of state teacher plans raised the age at which teachers can begin collecting their pension, and nearly one-third reduced the share of salary that a pension

February 10, 2020
Brief
 

In June 2019, New Hampshire began requiring beneficiaries to report work and community engagement hours as a condition of eligibility for its Medicaid expansion program, Granite Advantage, becoming the second state to do so following Arkansas’ work requirements implemented a year earlier. Though state officials implemented numerous strategies to try and avoid the problems experienced in Arkansas – where over 18,000 Medicaid

February 10, 2020
Research Report
 

The Labor–Health and Human Services (HHS)–Education appropriations bill sets federal funding levels for important programs supporting our nation’s children. The Kids’ Share research team tracked four successive versions of the funding proposal: the president’s budget; the House bill, the Senate draft bill, and the final conference agreement signed into law in late December 2019. This analysis finds that Congress increased

February 6, 2020
Brief
 

Urban school districts regularly find themselves at the center of education reform efforts because of large gaps in academic performance between students based on income, race, and ethnicity. Since 2002, the National Center for Education Statistics has tracked the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scores of select urban school districts through the Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA). But interpretation of

February 6, 2020
Brief
 

Jenny Yang, a senior fellow at the Urban Institute, testified before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor, Civil Rights and Human Services Subcommittee for a hearing on “The Future of Work: Protecting Workers’ Civil Rights in the Digital Age.” In her testimony she underscores the importance of fairness in the algorithmic screening and assessment of job applicants, and discusses how technology can be

February 5, 2020
Testimony
 

Susan J Popkin, Institute fellow, testified before the US House of Representatives Financial Services Subcommittee on Housing, Community Development and Insurance during a hearing on the future of public housing. Her testimony outlined the current state of public housing, the important role housing programs play amid an affordable housing crisis, and how housing programs can be strengthened in the future.

February 5, 2020
Testimony
 

Colorado has one of the nation’s worst-funded public retirement systems, but recent legislative reforms could improve its financial outlook. These reforms do not, however, address inequities in the distribution of pension benefits across the teacher workforce. The system provides substantial retirement benefits to teachers who spend their entire career in Colorado classrooms, but it provides meager benefits to teachers with

February 5, 2020
Brief
 

The Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC) AmeriCorps program offers individuals the opportunity to serve communities and engage with residents while also developing skills that can benefit their future career paths and educational goals. But how do program placement sites and local LISC offices ensure these members have a positive experience and see lasting benefits from their service? This study, the second consecutive

February 5, 2020
Research Report
 

This brief details the Milwaukee Police Department’s experiences optimizing its surveillance technologies—including benefits and challenges—and provides recommendations for law enforcement agencies using or planning to integrate video analytic technologies in their surveillance systems. Between 2016 and 2019, we worked with MPD to optimize its surveillance system. Improvements included software and hardware upgrades, relocating

February 3, 2020
Brief
 

This guidebook outlines steps for maximizing public surveillance programs’ impact on crime control and prevention, including questions decisionmakers should consider to optimize their surveillance systems. The guide can also help agencies identify surveillance goals, consider their systems’ limitations and constraints, and develop strategies for meaningful improvements. We draw on findings from our 2016-2019 partnership with the

February 3, 2020
Brief
 

This brief explains how pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) and panoramic public surveillance cameras work and how they differentially impact crime and support criminal investigations. Using data from our work with the Milwaukee Police Department from 2016-2019, our findings show that panoramic and PTZ cameras offer unique and complementary benefits to departments, and agencies should carefully consider their specific needs before choosing

February 3, 2020
Brief
 

The number of international undergraduate students at US public research universities increased dramatically over the past two decades, alongside concurrent reductions in state support for universities. We show that these trends are closely connected as public research universities relied on foreign students to cushion the effects of falling appropriations. The growing capacity in emerging economies to pay for a US education

February 1, 2020
Journal Article
 

In recognition of the important work family caregivers do, the Economic Security Project (ESP) has proposed that they be eligible for the cost-of-living refund, an expansion of the earned income tax credit (EITC). Among other changes to the EITC, the cost-of-living refund would extend benefits to family caregivers who have little or no earnings from paid employment, essentially expanding the kinds of work eligible for tax

January 31, 2020
Brief
 

Policymakers are increasingly using data to understand how well their colleges and universities serve students by examining such outcomes as graduation rates. In this report, we harness longitudinal data systems in Connecticut and Virginia to demonstrate how student-level data can be used to measure graduation rates that compare each institution’s students with demographically similar students around the state. We find that

January 31, 2020
Research Report
 

A student’s major can have a large effect on long-run earnings, and program-level earnings data are best paired with information about a student’s likelihood of success in a given major. Program-level graduation rates could provide this context. A useful program-level graduation rate must include as many students as possible, provide an accurate and stable estimate of a student’s likelihood of completion, be consistent across

January 31, 2020
Research Report
 

Policymakers and researchers measure earnings after enrolling in higher education. Using Connecticut data, we show that the definition of this earnings metric matters. The data we use, the period we assess, and the students we include affect how institutions stack up against each other. In line with previous findings, we illustrate that measures of in-state wages tend to be lower than wages using national data. Excluding

January 31, 2020
Research Report
 

Policies and practices throughout the educational pipeline harm the educational attainment of black and Hispanic Americans. Using administrative data from Virginia and Connecticut colleges, we first examine graduation rate gaps within colleges, finding that even after adjusting for precollege student characteristics, gaps remain stubbornly high at many colleges. Next, we decompose the statewide gaps into components caused by

January 31, 2020
Research Report
 

Higher education data are now more widely available than ever before. In addition to institution- and program-level data, nearly every state has, or is in the process of developing, a student-level longitudinal data system that can follow students from kindergarten through college. Despite having an abundance of data, it can still be difficult to understand how well state colleges serve students. The production and dissemination

January 31, 2020
Brief
 

Introduction Early childhood home visiting programs provide new and expecting parents with information, support, referrals, and connections to community resources and services. These programs build relationships to support families in reaching their goals. They aim to improve maternal and child health, prevent child abuse and neglect, encourage positive parenting, and promote child development and school readiness. Until

January 31, 2020
Research Report
 

People with behavioral health disorders are overrepresented in the criminal justice system, which is often ill-equipped to meet their needs. In this brief, we highlight strategies states engaged in the Justice Reinvestment Initiative have used to better respond to people with behavioral health disorders, including improving identification of people with these disorders, enhancing diversion mechanisms, expanding treatment, and

January 31, 2020
Brief
 

The Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) provides federal money to States and Territories to subsidize the cost of child care for low-income families. The detailed policies used to administer the programs vary widely across jurisdictions, with States and Territories establishing different policies for family eligibility, family copayments, provider payment rates, and provider eligibility requirements. The CCDF Policies

January 30, 2020
Fact Sheet
 

This report describes the results of the model refining phase of the Robust and Equitable Measures to Inspire Quality Schools (REMIQS) project. The project seeks to inspire high schools to generate positive long-term outcomes for historically underserved students. In this phase, we develop a multistate model to identify the best-performing schools in Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Virginia. We find that a multistate model is

January 30, 2020
Research Report
 

Public housing plays a crucial role in the nation’s stock of affordable, safe, stable housing, and currently faces significant risks. In 2016 the program served a total of 2,311,000 people in 1,067,000 units. This fact sheet describes public housing properties and residents and highlights some of the most pressing of these risks, which stem from the age of the housing stock, unit conditions, and exposure to climate change

January 30, 2020
Fact Sheet
 

Congress authorized the US Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Rental Assistance Demonstration (RAD) program in 2012 to test a new strategy intended to maintain public housing stock given a long-term backlog of capital needs. The program allows public housing authorities (PHAs) to convert public housing units to project-based Section 8 contracts, either project-based vouchers or project-based rental assistance.

January 30, 2020
Fact Sheet