The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 eliminated the financial penalty of the Affordable Care Act’s individual mandate. States could reinstate a similar penalty to encourage health insurance enrollment, ensuring broad sharing of health care costs across healthy and sick populations to stabilize the marketplaces. This analysis provides state-by-state estimates of the impact on insurance coverage, premiums, and mandate penalty

July 20, 2018
Research Report
 

In this paper, part of the Carbon Tax Research Initiative led by Columbia University’s SIPA Center on Global Energy Policy, we estimate how a carbon tax would affect the distribution of tax burdens across US taxpayers. We consider three carbon tax scenarios that would price carbon at roughly $14, $50, and $73 (in 2016 dollars) per metric ton starting in 2020 and increasing thereafter between 1 and 3 percent per year. We also

July 19, 2018
Journal Article
 

Public spending on children aims to support their healthy development, helping them fulfill their human potential. As such, federal spending on children is an investment in the nation’s future. To inform policymakers, children’s advocates, and the general public about how public funds are spent on children, this 12th edition of the annual Kids’ Share report provides an updated analysis of federal expenditures

July 18, 2018
Research Report
 

Restoring opportunity requires jobs that generate middle class incomes. Building a robust apprenticeship system can sharply increase earnings and the share of US workers entering rewarding careers. By emphasizing “learning by doing” as a paid employee, apprenticeships help workers gain a valued occupational qualification. They enhance youth development by providing a more engaging experience than schooling does and by linking

July 18, 2018
Journal Article
 

Links between high school and careers are too weak for youth to transition successfully from school to careers. These deficiencies have contributed to a widening earnings gap between college and high school graduates. This article calls for the development and implementation of a large-scale youth apprenticeship system in the US. Such a system could strengthen student engagement, emphasize learning by doing and teamwork, and

July 18, 2018
Journal Article
 

To help more borrowers in distress stay in their homes and avoid foreclosure, Fannie Mae added the streamlined modification program in 2013. The streamlined program allows delinquent borrowers to receive mortgage modifications without submitting paperwork. This analysis of 2012 – 2015 data shows that streamlined modifications have a higher take-up rate but a lower success rate than standard modifications, and that the

July 17, 2018
Research Report
 

Immigrants make up one out of six workers in the United States. They are an often overlooked but vital part of local economies and should be a part of local workforce development strategies. This report examines the size and characteristics of the immigrant workforce and explores key strategies that organizations in three cities are using to support training this population.  We use recent census data to provide a

July 17, 2018
Research Report
 

If a family needs help covering their expenses during a period of financial hardship, will they qualify for temporary cash assistance? How much assistance can they receive and for how long? The answers to these questions depend on the family’s circumstances and where they live. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) is a block grant program that provides cash and other forms of assistance to low-income families. Each

July 16, 2018
Brief
 

Matthew Chingos, director of the Urban Institute’s Education Policy Program, testified before the Council of the District of Columbia about how independent, high-quality research can support the District’s efforts to provide a high-quality education for all children. Drawing on Urban’s collective experience conducting research in the District and in other cities and states around the country, Chingos offered recommendations

July 13, 2018
Testimony
 

The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) is a complex but crucial tool for the production and preservation of affordable rental housing. Despite its broad popularity and almost 3 million financed rental units, it is still not well understood. By enhancing national understanding of LIHTC—how it works, who it serves, and the challenges it faces—this report advances the discussion of how to maximize this vital program’s effects on

July 12, 2018
Research Report
 

This report describes how we used data from the National Housing Preservation Database (NHPD) to explore the importance of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) in The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit: Past Achievements, Future Challenges. It describes the relationship of the NHPD property-level database to the transaction-level database from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Because of both databases’

July 12, 2018
Technical Paper
 

Despite the housing affordability crisis many renters with low incomes face, most government resources for preserving and building affordable rental housing have dried up. This stagnation in federal housing assistance programs means that the low-income housing tax credit (LIHTC) program, which provides a federal income tax credit to private investors in eligible projects, is now the primary option for preserving and expanding

July 12, 2018
Research Report
 

This study shows that the homeownership rate for millennials was 37 percent in 2015, or about eight percentage points lower than that of the two previous generations (Gen X and Baby boomers) at the same age (25 – 34). We quantify for the first time some of the many factors which impact the lower homeownership rate. Specifically: Delayed marriage: Being married increases the probability of owning a home by 18 percentage

July 11, 2018
Research Report
 

The ACA has made considerable gains in health insurance coverage, with the number of uninsured people declining by over 19 million between 2010 and 2017. However, many remain uninsured. In this paper, we update our 2015 analysis of the characteristics of the remining uninsured, focusing on people uninsured in 2017 as well as how the characteristics of this population have changed. This analysis relies upon data from the March

July 11, 2018
Research Report
 

With the number of senior-headed households in Southeast Michigan expected to double between 2010 and 2040 (from 413,000 to 828,000), and increase from 22 percent to 37 percent of the region’s households, stakeholders in the region already recognize the importance of building on existing activities and programs to address the growing needs of aging residents. This brief provides an overview of regional trends, identifies

July 10, 2018
Brief
 

Demand for rental housing is expected to continue growing throughout Southeast Michigan. But in a region where only 28 rental housing units are affordable and available for every 100 extremely low–income rental households, the disconnect between demand and supply is large. This brief discusses the status of Southeast Michigan’s affordable rental housing market. It provides an overview of the constraints that lower-income renter

July 10, 2018
Brief
 

Homeownership provides numerous benefits over renting, including predictable housing costs, secure tenure, and the potential to save money and build wealth. In Michigan, homeownership rates for African Americans have declined dramatically over the last 18 years, from 60 percent in 2000 to 41 percent in 2016. In this brief, the authors recommend strategies to address two pressing and interrelated issues for making homeownership

July 10, 2018
Brief
 

Increased demand for better use of evidence in policymaking has sparked bipartisan support for better evaluation of federal spending programs. Tax expenditures, spending-like subsidies embedded in the tax code, cost taxpayers roughly as much as domestic discretionary programs, yet receive little-to-no scrutiny from government evaluators. Many large tax expenditures have existed for decades with limited reform, despite

July 10, 2018
Research Report
 

Chief evaluation officer (CEO) is one term for a federal official responsible for coordinating evidence-building efforts and encouraging high-quality, independent evaluations across a federal agency’s offices to institutionalize a culture of building and applying evidence. CEOs may have different titles and sit at different organizational levels within departments, but they should adhere to common principles. CEOs often work

July 2, 2018
Brief
 

Research and evaluation play an important role in supporting government agencies in making optimal policy, programmatic, and operational decisions. This guide provides an annotated list of selected written and online resources to support Child Care and Development Fund lead agencies seeking to build research and evaluation capacity. Listings point readers to user-friendly, practical tools that cover the following topics: 1)

June 30, 2018
Research Report
 

Growing evidence demonstrates that where you live affects your well-being and ability to thrive (Chetty et al. 2018; Turner and Gourevitch 2017). This brief highlights new connections between place and access to opportunity across regions and populations. We analyze data on neighborhood-level exposure to opportunity that the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) originally released in 2015 to help local

June 28, 2018
Research Report
 

Manufactured housing is one of the most affordable types of housing in the US, but the high cost of manufactured home financing may be contributing to its surprisingly low production. Our close look at Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data reveals that the loan most manufactured homebuyers obtain – the chattel loan – costs 4.4 percentage points more per year than a standard mortgage loan. Despite this greater expense, more

June 27, 2018
Brief
 

Social determinants of health can be related to health care spending, and they often reflect material hardships people face. However, research on the relationship between specific hardships and medical care utilization across the US adult population is limited. Using 2010–11 data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), we study three specific hardships—food insecurity, housing insecurity, and housing quality—

June 27, 2018
Research Report
 

The June 2018 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center's reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing the size of the mortgage market, originator profitability, first-time homebuyer share, negative household equity and latest modification activities.

June 26, 2018
Research Report