Sexual violence in correctional facilities is a long-standing problem. In 2003, Congress passed the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) with unanimous, bipartisan support. PREA established a mandate for data collection and research about the incidence and effects of sexual violence in federal, state, and local correctional facilities, provided funding to state correctional, juvenile detention, community

May 12, 2021
Brief
 

Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), families are generally ineligible for Marketplace premium tax credits (PTCs) if a family member is offered worker-only coverage through an employer that is deemed affordable. The cost of covering the entire family, however, is not considered and may be unaffordable. Coverage is considered affordable if employee contributions for worker-only coverage do not exceed 9.83 percent

May 11, 2021
Brief
 

In this letter, members of the DC Education Research Collaborative offer recommendations to improve the District’s education data infrastructure. Suggestions include making data available to local education agencies and schools; collecting additional data on student supports, teacher characteristics, and high school courses; developing common surveys of students, families, and educators; and connecting datasets

May 11, 2021
Testimony
 

Public sector apprenticeships are a powerful and underutilized tool for workforce and economic development. When state and local governments create apprenticeship programs for roles where hiring is a challenge, they benefit from an infusion of talent. At the same time, apprentices receive benefits by earning wages, learning new skills, and building valuable work experience. A new fact sheet from the

May 11, 2021
Brief
 

The first CBO report of the Biden presidency laid out the fiscal status of the federal government at the start of his administration. Despite the multi-trillion-dollar response to the pandemic and related increases in national debt, the long-term direction of the federal budget has changed little. Social Security, Medicare, and interest costs continue to almost totally dominate future growth in spending and at

May 10, 2021
Brief
 

This case study examines Long Beach, California’s experience piloting Connections to Care (C2C), a program designed to better connect people leaving the Long Beach municipal jail to social services in the community. Key features of the program were an embedded clinician in jail that provided release plans and referrals to services if needed and a graduate student fellow that coordinated transportation services,

May 7, 2021
Brief
 

Faced with a shortage of affordable housing, policymakers are failing to take advantage of America’s biggest source of affordable housing: homeownership. Contrary to popular belief, owning one’s own home is frequently more affordable than renting. Nevertheless, many people cling to the idea that homeownership is reserved for people who achieve some arbitrary level of financial success and that it is not “

May 7, 2021
Brief
 

Across the United States, interest has grown in two-generation approaches as a strategy for lifting families out of poverty. These approaches vary in the combination of services they offer and their target population, but they all share a common goal of supporting low-income children and their parents simultaneously so entire families can progress together (Aspen Ascend 2014). Despite the growing prominence of

May 6, 2021
Research Report
 

Family-Centered Community Change (FCCC), launched by the Annie E. Casey Foundation (the Foundation), supported local partnerships in three neighborhoods with low economic resources over seven years (2012–19) as they developed more integrated sets of services to help adults and children succeed together in a two-generation approach. This innovative effort sought to bring two-generation strategies into existing

May 6, 2021
Research Report
 

These appendixes describe how we used data collected in a time-use survey to estimate the staff labor costs reported in The Costs of Coordinating Two-Generation Programs: Estimating Labor Costs of Family Services and Cross-Generation Coordination for Two-Generation Partnerships in Buffalo, Columbus, and San Antonio. In addition to a detailed study methodology, we also include definitions of the cost categories

May 6, 2021
Brief
 

Nearly all students who were enrolled in postsecondary career and technical education (CTE) programs in 2020 are likely to have taken at least one course online after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States in March of that year. To understand how the pandemic has accelerated the transition of CTE programs online, Urban Institute researchers administered a rapid-response survey in partnership

May 5, 2021
Brief
 

In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic forced many public housing authorities (PHAs) to quickly adjust their operational procedures to protect their staff while providing emergency assistance to residents. Many PHAs had to close their offices and convert to remote operations almost overnight, while staff focused on supporting their tenants by delivering them food, doing wellness checks for vulnerable residents,

May 5, 2021
Brief
 

Making sure that families remain housed during the pandemic and related economic downtown is critical. But longer-term effects could reduce the supply of rental units affordable to people earning low incomes and prevent additional affordable units from coming online. Our patchwork system for preserving and expanding the affordable rental housing supply is inefficient. Improving it will take more capital and

May 4, 2021
Brief
 

This report examines the success of public housing agencies (PHAs) participating in HUD’s Moving to Work (MTW) demonstration in furthering two of the demonstration’s three statutory objectives: increasing housing choice for and encouraging self-sufficiency among households receiving federal housing assistance. The MTW demonstration allows participating PHAs the flexibility to seek exemptions from regulations and

April 30, 2021
Research Report
 

Public housing agencies (PHAs) with Moving to Work (MTW) designation have unique funding and policy flexibility intended to allow them to test innovative approaches to providing housing assistance. This report uses US Department of Housing and Urban Development data to describe the 39 PHAs with MTW designation as of 2016, as well as the housing assistance they provided and the households they served. The

April 30, 2021
Research Report
 

This study explores project-based voucher (PBV) use at Moving to Work (MTW) agencies through a mixed-methods approach. We examine several questions about PBV assistance, including the share of assistance and Housing Choice Voucher budget authority devoted to PBVs, the relationships between PBVs and the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) and Rental Assistance Demonstration (RAD), the locations of PBV-assisted

April 30, 2021
Research Report
 

Increased rates of pretrial detention have driven overall growth in the jail population nationwide and carry significant individual and systemic impacts for people of color, who are disproportionately affected by pretrial policies. Targeting rates of failure to appear in court in local jurisdictions is key to reducing pretrial jail populations, especially because failure to appear can result in bench warrants

April 30, 2021
Brief
 

Since 2015, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Policies for Action (P4A) research program has been funding a growing body of work to understand how policies shape the root causes of health and survival, and, in particular, what policy solutions are needed to significantly boost population health, well-being, and equity in the United States. Scholars at the Urban Institute, home of the national coordinating

April 29, 2021
Research Report
 

Uncompensated care costs for the nation’s uninsured averaged $42.4 billion per year in the 2015-2017 time period. While substantial, these costs significantly declined following implementation of the Affordable Care Act’s coverage expansion, down from $62.8 billion per year in 2011-2013. Although health care providers incur substantial cost in caring for the uninsured, the bulk of their costs are

April 29, 2021
Brief
 

The increase in the uninsured rate in recent years, as well as loss of coverage during the pandemic, has led to attention on the consequences of being uninsured. The need for medical care to test, treat, or prevent COVID-19 has also highlighted the potential consequences of uncompensated care for uninsured people. Uncompensated care costs occur because, although people who are uninsured use less care than

April 29, 2021
Brief
 

Promoting Adolescent Sexual Health and Safety (PASS) is a unique, community-based effort in Washington, DC, to create and evaluate a program for teenagers that is focused on sexual health and tailored to their experiences and needs. PASS is the result of a partnership between the Benning Terrace District of Columbia Housing Authority community, including participating teens, and the Urban Institute. This report

April 29, 2021
Research Report
 

This report examines how the pandemic and related economic downturn affected the need for safety net supports; actions states are taking to mitigate the immense hardship the pandemic has caused; implications for racial equity; and challenges, opportunities, and questions facing state leaders as of April 2021. Drawing on interviews with experts on state budgets, governance, and safety net programs between

April 29, 2021
Research Report
 

This report examines how state Medicaid and other health programs responded to the COVID-19 pandemic and its related economic downturn. It also explores the outlook for these programs in the year ahead as governors and state legislatures work to balance their FY 2022 budgets. Drawing from interviews with experts on Medicaid and behavioral health, public health, and maternal and child health programs between

April 29, 2021
Research Report
 

This brief provides an overview of opportunities, challenges, and steps to expand the participation of home-based child care (HBCC) providers in subsidies provided by the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), which is the major federal-state child care assistance program. Based on expert interviews and a review of the literature, we first provide background on HBCC providers and CCDF to set the context and

April 29, 2021
Brief
 

This brief provides an overview of opportunities, challenges, and steps to expand the participation of home-based child care (HBCC) providers in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), which is a federal child nutrition program that helps pay for meals provided in child care settings. Based on expert interviews and a review of the literature, we first provide background on HBCC providers and CACFP to set

April 29, 2021
Brief