The Urban Institute collaborated with the National Birth Equity Collaborative, a national nonprofit organization that creates solutions that optimize Black maternal and infant health, to produce a research brief that centers Black expertise, experiences, and voices in the Black maternal health crisis. In this brief, we share findings from informant interviews and established research recommendations to provide

April 16, 2021
Brief
 

This guide provides a framework for how to define and structure youth probation terms to reduce the harm inherent in probation supervision, leverage community partnerships, and build community capacity to wrap youth and their households with any supports, resources, and services needed to promote success. Probation-system improvements have gained momentum over the past several years and a continued need exists

April 16, 2021
Research Report
 

In this brief, we assess how material hardship changed during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, between December 2019 and December 2020. Using data from the Urban Institute’s Well-Being and Basic Needs Survey, our analysis provides the first probability-based national survey estimates of changes in hardship from a prepandemic baseline. Despite a steep drop in employment, we find the share of nonelderly

April 14, 2021
Research Report
 

The recently enacted American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA) includes several provisions designed to expand access to affordable health insurance coverage in 2021 and 2022, while the economy continues recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic and recession. One provision is the expansion of Affordable Care Act (ACA) marketplace subsidies over that period, which could substantially reduce household spending on health care,

April 14, 2021
Brief
 

New York City’s Performance Partnership Pilot (P3) program helped participants complete high school equivalency and occupational credentials. The program, however, did not lead to higher levels of employment. The New York City P3 enhanced existing Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) Out-of-School Youth (OSY) services by extending the eligibility period and providing extra support from a child care

April 13, 2021
Research Report
 

As the COVID-19 pandemic enters its second year, millions of renters remain in crisis. In response to the ongoing crisis, organizations that provide housing counseling have been adapting their services to better meet renters’ needs. Based on interviews with representatives from organizations that support counseling agencies or provide counseling directly to renters, this brief explores the ways that the housing

April 8, 2021
Brief
 

Immigrants represent about a quarter of California residents, and about half of adults in the state live in households with at least one immigrant family member. Yet, little is known about COVID-19 vaccine attitudes and access among adults in immigrant families, both in California and nationally. In this brief, we assess attitudes toward the novel coronavirus and COVID-19 vaccines among adults ages 18 to 64 in

April 7, 2021
Brief
 

Medicaid has a long history of serving pregnant women, but many women are not eligible for Medicaid before pregnancy or after sixty days postpartum. We used data for new mothers with Medicaid-covered prenatal care in 2015–18 from forty-three states participating in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) to describe patterns of perinatal uninsurance and health outcomes of women experiencing

April 6, 2021
Journal Article
 

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced service delivery organizations across the US to rethink how they deliver supports in a world where in-person interactions are constrained. Organizations serving vulnerable populations have had to be particularly adaptable to rapidly restore and ensure the continuity of services to meet people’s needs—needs that may have been exacerbated by the pandemic. Organizations have had to

April 5, 2021
Brief
 

Across the country, public, private, philanthropic, and nonprofit organizations develop and implement geographically targeted programs aimed at improving the social and economic outcomes of communities. Assessing the results of a multifaceted initiative can be challenging for many reasons, including the amount of time needed to identify the sustained impacts of its investments and the difficulty of assessing who

April 5, 2021
Technical Paper
 

Using data from the Urban Institute’s September 2020 Coronavirus Tracking Survey, a nationally representative survey of adults ages 18 to 64, we describe nonelderly adults’ perceptions of discrimination and unfair judgment while seeking health care in the months leading up to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We find that Black adults were more likely than white or Hispanic/Latinx adults to report having been

April 5, 2021
Brief
 

This report focuses on caregivers’ experiences in the first two states to pass paid family leave (PFL) in the US—California and New Jersey. With growing interest in PFL at both the state and federal levels, these two pioneering states provide important lessons for how this policy can address the multiple challenges working caregivers have in managing both roles and barriers to benefit take-up.

April 2, 2021
Research Report
 

Introduction Employment and training (E&T) contexts provide opportunities to deliver financial capability interventions to adults with low incomes, but there is little evidence on the effectiveness of this channel. To address this gap in knowledge, OPRE launched the “Integrating Financial Capability and Employment Services” project, which will study the extent of financial capability

April 2, 2021
Research Report
 

Violence between current or former romantic partners, known as intimate partner violence (IPV), is a serious public health problem. It may involve sexual violence, stalking, physical violence, and/or psychological aggression. In families with young children, IPV exposure can adversely affect child mental health and social, physical, and cognitive development. By observing families in the home, home visitors are

April 1, 2021
Brief
 

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed unprecedented challenges for young people and staff at youth-serving organizations that provide education and training, employment, and mental health services. Challenges are more pronounced for youth who may lack access to digital devices and conducive learning environments or who must balance program participation, work, and family responsibilities. This resource guide for

March 31, 2021
Research Report
 

Four major policies in the American Rescue Plan (ARP) will reduce the number of people in poverty in 2021 from 44 million to 28 million – shrinking the overall poverty rate from 13.7 percent to 8.7 percent. Additional $1,400 payments could further reduce poverty to between 6.4 and 6.6 percent, depending on whether all people in the US are included or whether payments are limited to citizens. Two additional $1,

March 30, 2021
Brief
 

Registered Apprenticeship program sponsors must comply with US Department of Labor (DOL) regulations on Equal Employment Opportunity. The rules set expectations for sponsors related to apprentices’ recruitment and training. Although the EEO rules may appear complicated, they are similar or identical to many employers’ existing practices, policies, and legal requirements and help ensure programs access and retain

March 30, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

In this brief, the authors discuss the causes, scale and implications of the shortfall in housing supply. They argue that while it is a complex issue to address, doing so would improve housing affordability, leading to greater household savings, improved access to homeownership and more economic mobility.

March 30, 2021
Brief
 

Identifying and reducing racial disparities in the quality of health care is a necessary (if insufficient) step toward reversing the effects of systemic racism on racial health inequities in America. This study investigates differences in Black and white patient safety measures using complete hospital discharge records from 26 states in 2017 and further examines whether some of these differences in patient

March 29, 2021
Brief
 

States reported robust revenue growth in the third quarter of 2020, a reversal of steep declines in the second quarter that mostly reflects shifting income tax filing deadlines. Over a six-month period (April through September 2020), state revenues declined 2.0 percent compared to the same period one year earlier. States continue to face fiscal uncertainties because of the pandemic and its economic consequences

March 29, 2021
Research Report
 

Stark disparities in wealth holding exist in the United States, created by long-standing public- and private-sector actions such as discrimination in hiring, redlining, Jim Crow laws, and race-restricted covenants that systematically denied communities of color access to income and wealth-building means and tools. Addressing these disparities will take solutions both large and small. An earlier brief in this

March 29, 2021
Brief
 

Awareness is growing of the ongoing displacement, relocation, and migration of people and communities because of climate change’s effects within the US. That reality, and the public’s awareness of it, stands in stark contrast to the blind spots in federal policy. Disaster displacement assistance, buyout programs, and involuntary abandonment and resettlement dot a sparse federal landscape. A framework of shared

March 26, 2021
Research Report
 

Procedural justice, a framework for authority figures to treat people with fairness and respect, can improve probation supervision and core supervision outcomes. This report summarizes the approach and provision outcomes of an effort to develop and pilot a new procedural justice training curriculum outlining new tools and practices for probation officers. Analyses of interactions between supervising officers and

March 26, 2021
Research Report
 

The March 2021 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing the value of the housing market, first lien origination volume, cash-out refinances, and the nonbank mortgage origination share. Housing Finance at a Glance: Monthly Chartbooks Archive

March 25, 2021
Research Report
 

Among the many pressing issues for the Biden administration to tackle are the challenges of instituting national housing policies that address housing stability and affordability and that ensure affordable housing is built and preserved in neighborhoods of opportunity. These challenges are not new, and some issues, particularly for renters and communities of color, have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic

March 24, 2021
Brief