In this brief, we consider both personal and business income tax expenditures at the state level. We use California, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and the District of Columbia as examples. We separate tax expenditures into those that occur because of conformity with federal tax provisions and those that result from state-specific tax policies. We find that the former category accounts for between 70 and 85 percent of the total cost

January 17, 2020
Brief
 

This is the third and final evaluation report of the Missouri Foundation for Health’s Show Me Healthy Housing program, which helped fund four new supportive housing programs across the state. The evaluation found that some programs did not follow the supportive housing model of a rent subsidy with no time limits and supportive services. Despite this, the programs were effective in helping formerly homeless single adults and

January 17, 2020
Research Report
 

Since 2009, housing demand has outstripped supply, quite significantly in some areas. This shortage has increased home prices and rents, a trend that will continue for the foreseeable future absent policy changes. To help people understand the state of the nation’s housing supply, we have created this Housing Supply Chartbook. The chartbook seeks to answer a broad range of questions, about the current state of our nation’s

January 16, 2020
Research Report
 

Tracy Gordon, senior fellow, testified before the US House of Representatives Committee on the Budget for a hearing on “Why Federal Investments Matter: Stability from Congress to State Capitals.” In her testimony she notes that while states and localities are key economic players and service providers, both are severely tested roles in recessions and other economic shocks – and although federal government often steps in to help

January 15, 2020
Testimony
 

In this paper, we show the changes in average lowest silver premiums from 2017 to 2020 by state and in the lowest silver premiums offered by each insurer in selected markets. Following uncertainty and regulatory changes in 2018, including the administration’s decision to stop reimbursing insurers for cost-sharing reductions and widespread fear that the administration would not enforce the individual mandate, the average number

January 15, 2020
Brief
 

The Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center (TPC) is a research center providing the public with rigorous, independent analysis of tax policy issues. We receive hundreds of queries from students, journalists, and policymakers each year, and even more during presidential campaign season. This document describes the campaign-related analyses and other products we produce, how we produce them, and our policies for interacting with

January 14, 2020
Brief
 

In this brief, the authors assess the move by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to a single security, called the Uniform Mortgage-Backed Security (UMBS). After discussing the purpose of the single security, the authors review its success to date, the challenges that remain, and a recent proposal by the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to address those challenges. The authors also offer thoughts on how the FHFA might use a more

January 14, 2020
Brief
 

Researcher-practitioner partnerships can meaningfully shape policy and practice. In 2015, the Urban Institute collaborated with the Virginia Department of Juvenile Justice to evaluate aggression management programs for medium- and high-risk youth in a Virginia correctional facility. This brief is a case study of that evaluation, discussing the challenges and strengths of the researcher-practitioner partnership and summarizing

January 14, 2020
Research Report
 

The Opportunity Zones tax incentive, created by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, was designed to spur investment in low-income and undercapitalized communities. How can stakeholders use the program to support affordable housing, finance small businesses, and boost job creation? The experiences of investors, developers, government officials, and business representatives show how the incentive is playing out nationally and

January 14, 2020
Fact Sheet
 

In this report, we explore a wide range of policy options that attempt to introduce needed competition in provider markets and regulate prices directly. We argue that transparency initiatives will support both regulatory and competition-based policy options, and certain approaches to regulation complement and support efforts to improve market competition. Thus, although we largely divide the report in to two parts, competition

January 13, 2020
Research Report
 

This brief examines major tax expenditures for health care under current law and analyzes three potential reforms to the tax exclusion for employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) premiums. We use the Tax Policy Center microsimulation model’s revamped health module as well as health insurance coverage simulations from the Urban Institute’s Health Policy Simulation Model (HIPSM).

January 13, 2020
Brief
 

The Opportunity Zone Community Impact Assessment Tool User Guide is meant to accompany the use of the Assessment Tool which can be found here. The User Guide describes why the Assessment Tool was created, how and by whom it can be used, the principles around which the Tool was developed, and how to interpret and apply the results of the assessment. The User Guide also provides the methodology behind the Tool’s development and

January 9, 2020
Technical Paper
 

Conversations about the burden of student loan debt have become increasingly common. But for some Americans, the issue is not new. More than 1.5 million borrowers who first took out loans before 2000 still have debt. Borrowers with debt from the mid-1990s or earlier tend to have higher default rates, have lower credit scores, and live in lower-income neighborhoods than more recent student loan borrowers.   Reason Loans

January 8, 2020
Brief
 

This report explores how serving in the US military or the presence of a large military institution can ease racial and ethnic disparities in homeownership and income. We find that veterans have higher homeownership rates and incomes than the general population, even within racial or ethnic and age groups. Active-duty service members generally have lower homeownership rates but higher incomes. Using a regression analysis, we

January 8, 2020
Research Report
 

The December 2019 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing the size and value of the US housing market, first lien origination volume and composition, the share of loans in and near negative equity, and a special quarterly feature on GSE loan composition, repurchase rates, defaults, and loss severity. Housing Finance at

December 30, 2019
Research Report
 

Data quality has received much attention in the business community, but nonprofit service providers have not had the same tools and resources to address their needs for collecting, maintaining, and reporting high-quality data. While high-quality data can help improve outcomes, poor-quality data can do harm. This brief provides a basic overview of data quality management principles and practices that Promise Neighborhoods and

December 24, 2019
Brief
 

City leaders typically think about improving economic growth and improving inclusion and social cohesion as two separate challenges, often with economic development as a precondition to other social goals. Under this logic, a city or region would need to grow first; then, low-income or historically excluded residents could benefit from that growth—through job access, improved services and safety nets, or direct redistribution.

December 20, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

Expanding and sustaining the Promise Neighborhood model requires more than place-based, data-driven programming. This brief highlights Promise Neighborhood grantees that are developing partnerships to extend their impact beyond their neighborhoods to the state level. We explore how partnerships in California and Minnesota have established shared goals, invested their time and resources to achieve their goals, and engaged with

December 20, 2019
Brief
 

Across the country, Promise Neighborhood grantees are leveraging significant federal and local investments to improve outcomes for students and families in underresourced communities. In fall 2019, FourPoint Education Partners undertook a needs assessment to understand the financial landscape of Promise Neighborhood grantees and how they are approaching sustainability—what strategies they are employing, what challenges they are

December 20, 2019
Brief
 

Policymakers in New Mexico, like those in many other states, are looking for ways to build on the Affordable Care Act to stabilize and increase coverage for their constituents. To help with those efforts, we examine the characteristics of uninsured New Mexicans, highlighting populations that could benefit from targeted policies. We estimate that there are 187,000 uninsured people under age 65 in New Mexico in 2019. This means

December 19, 2019
Research Report
 

The US Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit has issued a ruling in Texas v. United States, a case that challenges the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The Fifth Circuit remanded the case to the District Court; ultimately, the case is likely to be reviewed by the Supreme Court. If the Supreme Court finds that the entire ACA without the individual mandate penalties in place is unconstitutional (the argument

December 19, 2019
Brief
 

A city’s ability to grow inclusively is tied to its residents’ financial health. When residents are financially insecure, they don’t have the same opportunity to benefit from and contribute to a city’s economic growth. To achieve inclusive growth, a city needs a fiscally sound budget that can fund city services and programs without placing undue burden on residents struggling to make ends meet; residents of all incomes who are

December 18, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

As findings rooted in data and community-based work increasingly draw a clear link between financial health and inclusive growth, some cities are piloting strategies that address this intersection to ensure all residents can contribute to and benefit from the city’s economic prosperity. These solutions move beyond general financial education to include strategies that cut across sectors and address structural barriers to shared

December 18, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

When the ACA was passed in 2010, Massachusetts and six other states had federal Medicaid waivers in place that expanded coverage to people not traditionally covered by Medicaid, such as low-income childless adults. The state’s long-standing commitment to health care coverage enabled Massachusetts to achieve the highest insurance rate in the country even before the ACA was in place. Nonetheless, the ACA increased and formalized

December 17, 2019
Research Report
 

The U.S. criminal justice system is defined and fueled by foundations and principles that uphold harmful power dynamics such as white supremacy, further destabilizing communities that face intersecting structural barriers. This paternalistic system is characterized by the imposition of punishments—including fees, fines, penalties, and deprivation of freedom and even life—that are meted out disproportionally to people of color

December 17, 2019
Journal Article