The lack of affordable, accessible, and high-quality rental units in the US has exacerbated economic and racial disparities. As cities and other jurisdictions look to implement housing policies for an equitable recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, many stakeholders are skeptical about inclusionary zoning’s (IZ) ability to produce and preserve enough rental housing for renters with low incomes and renters of

July 30, 2021
Brief
 

The lack of affordable, accessible, and high-quality rental units in the US has exacerbated economic and racial disparities. As cities and other jurisdictions look to implement housing policies for an equitable recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, rent control remains highly contentious, with diverging opinions among stakeholders on the program’s ability to produce and preserve enough rental housing for renters

July 30, 2021
Brief
 

Using information from the Urban Institute and the International Association of Forensic Nurses evaluation of the SAFE Protocol, we provide guidance and recommendations for efforts to promulgate it through training and technical assistance based on stakeholders’ reported familiarity with and knowledge, implementation, and adoption of the SAFE Protocol. Released in 2013, the second edition of the National

July 30, 2021
Research Report
 

Using information from the Urban Institute and the International Association of Forensic Nurses evaluation of the SAFE Protocol, this brief addresses the key components of sustaining a community-based response to survivors of sexual assault and the necessity of improving services to be inclusive of all survivors. Released in 2013, the second edition of the National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic

July 30, 2021
Brief
 

Using information from the Urban Institute and the International Association of Forensic Nurses evaluation of the SAFE Protocol, this brief examines stakeholders’ awareness of the SAFE Protocol and effective implementation and their perspectives on the protocol’s strengths and challenges. Released in 2013, the second edition of the National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations, or SAFE

July 30, 2021
Brief
 

Using information from the Urban Institute and the International Association of Forensic Nurses evaluation of the SAFE Protocol, this report identifies the designated public payers for sexual assault medical forensic exams (SAMFEs) in states and jurisdictions and examines which parts of the exam process are paid for by these designated payers and stakeholders' perceptions of the extent to which survivors receive

July 30, 2021
Research Report
 

Understanding the potential child care needs for parents who work early in the morning, evenings, nights, and weekends has become a growing concern for policymakers trying to make child care more accessible. Families working these nontraditional (NTH) schedules—defined here as anytime outside of 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. on weekdays—can face extra challenges

July 30, 2021
Brief
 

In this brief, we describe the methods, data collection activities, and participants of the Urban Institute and the International Association of Forensic Nurses evaluation of the SAFE Protocol. Released in 2013, the second edition of the National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations, or SAFE Protocol, is a voluntary guide developed by the Department of Justice that local and state

July 30, 2021
Brief
 

Many immigrant families have avoided safety net and pandemic relief programs in recent years over concerns that their participation would have adverse immigration consequences. These chilling effects on program participation occurred in the context of a restrictive immigration policy environment under the Trump administration, including the expansion of the “public charge” rule. Though the

July 29, 2021
Brief
 

Using data to understand revenue and expenditure patterns in higher education is crucial toward building knowledge of higher education policy. This brief, using data from the Urban Institute’s Education Data Portal, will introduce readers to data sources to describe patterns and pose questions for further research. We highlight data from the Office of Federal Student Aid on institutions’ 90/10 ratios, financial

July 29, 2021
Brief
 

Expanding the child tax credit (CTC) can be an effective way to reduce child poverty. The American Rescue Plan Act temporarily increased the value of the credit from $2,000 to $3,000 for children ages 6 to 16 and to $3,600 for younger children, expanded the number of children eligible for the credit by including 17-year-olds, and made it fully refundable so that all families with low incomes and qualifying

July 29, 2021
Brief
 

In an earlier brief, we estimated that the American Rescue Plan Act, enacted in March 2021, would reduce the 2021 annual poverty rate to 8.7 percent (Wheaton et al. 2021). We now project a 2021 poverty rate of 7.7 percent for 2021. The revised projection accounts for improvements in the economy, incorporates updated state-level information on pandemic-related policies, and improves the method for weighting the

July 28, 2021
Research Report
 

As state and local governments implemented stay-at-home orders to reduce the spread of the COVID-19 virus in March and April 2020, policymakers at all levels of government mounted emergency relief programs, attempting not only to mitigate the impending health and economic crisis, but also to do so equitably. In interviews with program designers across the US, we learned that emergency assistance program

July 28, 2021
Research Report
 

The July edition of At a Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing the composition of the mortgage market, agency nonbank credit scores, and home price growth. Housing Finance at a Glance: Monthly Chartbooks Archive

July 27, 2021
Research Report
 

This handout illustrates the varied approaches three jurisdictions—two cities and a school district—took to reduce police budgets and reallocate funding to advance a vision of public safety that includes investments in community-based services and infrastructure. We pose five questions that policymakers should consider when looking to shift public safety funding to new approaches.

July 26, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

The nationwide uprising against police violence in the wake of George Floyd’s murder by a Minneapolis police officer sparked new conversations about the scope and role of policing. Evidence shows that there are a variety of promising solutions to address violence that do not rely on police, and a growing number of jurisdictions are considering and adopting new public safety strategies. DC has urgent public

July 26, 2021
Brief
 

Probation revocation to jail or prison can result when a person is arrested for a new crime or is in violation of their probation conditions. The nature of probation supervision and how these violations relate to revocation varies depending on individual factors and the local context. Through the Reducing Revocations Challenge, the Urban Institute partnered with the Adult Probation Services Division of the

July 23, 2021
Research Report
 

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the primary federal food assistance program, aims to reduce hunger and food insecurity by augmenting low-income families’ purchasing power. However, the effectiveness of SNAP can be limited in a variety of ways, including by maximum benefit level, challenges with the Thrifty Food Plan (TFP), and geographic variation in food prices. In an earlier version of

July 21, 2021
Brief
 

Disaggregating data by race and ethnicity is a critical method for shining light on racialized systems of privilege and oppression. Imputation is a powerful tool for disaggregating data by generating racial and ethnic identifiers onto datasets lacking this information. But if used without a proactive focus on equity, it can harm Black people, Indigenous people, and other people of color. In this report, we

July 21, 2021
Research Report
 

The COVID-19 pandemic’s disproportionate effects on people of color and increased attention to racial justice have given rise to new or expanded efforts to address health inequities. In this brief, we examined how governments and organizations adopt community engagement approaches to collaborate and share power with communities that experience health inequities. Drawing on interviews with representatives from

July 20, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

Hospital-acquired illnesses and injuries have direct consequences on patient health and erode the trust patients place in providers and health systems. Examining within-hospital differences in Black and white adult patient safety risks is the central focus of this study. We assess racial disparities in the quality of inpatient care using 11 patient safety indicators that measure rates of adverse patient safety

July 20, 2021
Research Report
 

The wealth gap between white and African American households is large and is likely to grow as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. Policy interventions can be used to reduce that gap and increase the wealth holding of African Americans. These include programs or policies that would reduce student debt, increase homeownership, and put African Americans on track to better jobs and health care coverage. External

July 16, 2021
Article
 

Housing First is an approach to homelessness that recognizes housing is a platform for improved health and other positive outcomes. In 2016, the City and County of Denver launched the Supportive Housing Social Impact Bond Initiative (Denver SIB), a supportive housing program designed to serve a chronically homeless population that frequently cycles in and out of jail. This working paper explores the health care

July 15, 2021
Working Paper
 

In 2016, the City and County of Denver launched the Denver Supportive Housing Social Impact Bond Initiative (Denver SIB) to shift resources from expensive emergency services to more permanent, affordable housing and supportive services that can be difficult to fund without up-front capital. The initiative aimed to increase housing stability and decrease jail stays for people trapped in the homelessness-jail

July 15, 2021
Research Report
 

In February 2016, the City and County of Denver and eight private investors closed on the city’s first social impact bond, an $8.6 million investment to fund a supportive housing program for 250 of the city’s most frequent users of the criminal justice system. The city will make outcome payments over five years based on the initiative’s goals of housing stability and a decrease in days spent in jail by

July 15, 2021
Brief