In January, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) released its first economic and budgetary outlook of the decade. Even prior to the recent COVID-19 crisis, along with its attendant impact on the budget, CBO projected a deficit of more than $1 trillion for fiscal year 2020. The federal budget is on track for seemingly endless, unsustainable, and rising deficits. The CBO report showed current deficits already averaging over 4

March 27, 2020
Brief
 

Women are the fastest-growing population in America’s correctional facilities, and many jails are working to find ways to adapt to this changing reality. This case study examines Cumberland County, Maine’s experience piloting Project Safe Release, a program designed to better identify the needs of women entering the local jail, understand their victimization histories, and connect them to appropriate services before and after

March 27, 2020
Research Report
 

New technologies, economic shifts, changing demographics and continued racial biases are widening income inequalities and racial disparities in cities across the United States. As a result, economic opportunities are increasingly concentrated among a small share of the population and in a limited number of places. To combat increased economic and geographic inequality within cities, local leaders are launching new efforts to

March 26, 2020
Brief
 

New technologies, economic shifts, changing demographics and continued racial biases are widening income inequalities and racial disparities in cities across the United States. As a result, economic opportunities are increasingly concentrated among a small share of the population and in a limited number of places. To combat increased economic and geographic inequality within cities, local leaders are launching new efforts to

March 26, 2020
Brief
 

New technologies, economic shifts, changing demographics and continued racial biases are widening income inequalities and racial disparities in cities across the United States. As a result, economic opportunities are increasingly concentrated among a small share of the population and in a limited number of places. To combat increased economic and geographic inequality within cities, local leaders are launching new efforts to

March 26, 2020
Brief
 

Few occupations have experienced the negative effects of containment more abruptly and dramatically than food service and preparation workers – from waiters and bartenders to dishwashers and cooks – who are already economically disadvantaged by their low earnings and lack of health insurance coverage. In this brief we assess the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of adult food preparation and food service occupations

March 26, 2020
Brief
 

The March 2020 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center's reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing the total value and size of the US housing market, cash-out refinance activity, loans near or in negative equity and on modifications and liquidations. Housing Finance at a Glance: Monthly Chartbooks Archive

March 26, 2020
Research Report
 

The Federal government recently announced a new program allowing states in apply for block grants or per capita caps in exchange for new flexibility to limit enrollment and benefits.  These policies have been proposed in  the past but never enacted. They have the significant problem of placing states at risk for the increased costs from recession related increases in enrollment as well as spikes in spending from

March 25, 2020
Brief
 

Communities across the United States are fundamentally transforming their approach to juvenile justice services, moving away from outdated youth prisons and investing in community-based solutions. Juvenile justice system administrators are uniquely positioned to lead facility closure efforts as part of broader system reform and many are leading by example. In the summer of 2018, the Urban Institute convened a small group of

March 25, 2020
Brief
 

Economists believe that a global recession is unavoidable amidst the Coronavirus crisis, and there are already reports of large spikes in unemployment. Since the health insurance of many Americans is tied to their employment, the US is likely to also see large increases in uninsured people with newly lower incomes. The 15 states that have not yet expanded Medicaid eligibility under the Affordable Care Act are least prepared to

March 24, 2020
Brief
 

Across the nation, concerns are mounting that the need for hospital beds will overwhelm national capacity as the COVID-19 outbreak expands, putting severe strains on the health care system and limiting patient access to necessary care. Using data from the 2018 American Hospital Association Annual Survey, we present estimates of the number of occupied versus unoccupied beds at the national, state, and county levels. We estimate

March 19, 2020
Brief
 

In this brief, we estimate the revenue and distributional effects of Senator Bernie Sanders’s 2020 campaign tax proposals. We show the revenue and distributional implications of tax proposals excluding those related to his Medicare for All plan. We also report the revenue estimates (but not the distributional effects) of the tax proposals dedicated to finance his Medicare for All plan. We plan to analyze the combined

March 19, 2020
Brief
 

Practitioners and policymakers are beginning to design justice responses specifically for emerging adults (a life stage occurring roughly from ages 18 to 26). But community-based approaches to help young people avoid involvement with the justice system in the first place, or help them succeed afterwards, are less common. In this guide, we describe community-based strategies for supporting emerging adults in their transition to

March 18, 2020
Research Report
 

Report: Estimating the Impact of a Public Option or Capping Provider Payment Rates Brief: Introducing a Public Option or Capped Provider Payment Rates into Private Insurance Markets In this report, Urban Institute researchers estimate the coverage and spending implications of various forms of a public health insurance option introduced as an alternative to private plans currently available to consumers. The public option would

March 18, 2020
Research Report
 

This brief was updated on March 18, 2020. We updated figure 8 on page 10 to correct the name of a bank that we mislabeled on the previous map (Citizens Trust Bank) and to add it to the list of banks below. The updated map also consolidates the bank locations to include only headquarters. The previous map included indicators for all bank branches.   To help policymakers and other stakeholders better understand the role and

March 17, 2020
Brief
 

This report presents findings from a 2019 assessment of the Community Safety Partnership, a collaboration between the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles and the Los Angeles Police Department—a joint effort to make Los Angeles public housing developments safer by reducing gang influence, improving residents’ perceptions of safety, helping youth access resources and programming, and strengthening police-community

March 13, 2020
Research Report
 

This comment responds to the US Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD's) proposed revisions to a rule on Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing (published on January 14, 2020). In the proposed rule change, HUD ignores evidence on ongoing barriers to opportunity that protected groups face and, in doing so, disregards Congress’s intent in passing the Fair Housing Act. In these comments, we synthesize the evidence on

March 13, 2020
Public Comment
 

Long Island— the United States’ first suburb—is by many measures an economically prosperous place.  However, opportunity is not spread equally on Long Island. Long-standing discrimination and residential segregation created and maintains racial disparities, with black Long Islanders experiencing more limited access to employment, lower incomes, and greater financial insecurity. This report surveys the landscape of Long

March 11, 2020
Research Report
 

For college students looking to avoid unmanageable debt, making informed decisions about where to go, what to study, and how much to borrow is only the first step. How students approach repayment can be equally important in determining their financial outcomes. This memo aims to help counselors and other advisers better understand how repayment patterns differ by race or ethnicity, program, and type of institution to better

March 11, 2020
Fact Sheet
 

The transition from high school to college can challenge students and families, who often struggle as they figure out how to finance a college degree and how much to borrow. Though there is no “right” amount of debt, understanding how different choices affect different students can help inform decisions. This memo aims to help counselors and other advisers better understand differences in borrowing by race or ethnicity, program

March 11, 2020
Fact Sheet
 

Adults returning to school after time away face unique challenges, such as determining how much to borrow to finance their education. Overborrowing can cause significant problems, but borrowing too little can be just as much of a problem. To help guide students’ decisions, this memo aims to help counselors and other advisers better understand how borrowing patterns for older students differ by race or ethnicity, program, and

March 11, 2020
Fact Sheet
 

This comment responds to the US Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD's) proposed revisions to a rule on Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing (published on January 14, 2020). HUD’s proposal omits key information necessary to assess local jurisdictions' progress complying with the Fair Housing Act. Our analysis suggests that HUD's proposed race-neutral approach would be incomplete at best and risks obscuring and

March 9, 2020
Public Comment
 

Where children live matters and can affect their health over their lifetimes. To improve the health of their patients, several children’s hospitals have turned to organizations in the National Neighborhood Indicators Partnership (NNIP). This brief provides examples of collaborations between children’s hospitals and NNIP Partners from seven cities and examines how they work together to understand specific children’s health issues

March 9, 2020
Brief
 

Students enrolled in two-year colleges tend to live in households that experience food insecurity at rates higher than national levels. Food insecurity—and broader financial insecurity—can lead to negative outcomes, affecting mental and physical health and academic outcomes. Several federal, state, and campus resources aim to reduce financial insecurity among college students, but students may lack access to a single,

March 5, 2020
Research Report
 

In this brief, we estimate the revenue and distributional effects of former vice president Joe Biden’s 2020 campaign tax proposals, based on information released by the Biden campaign and conversations with campaign staff. We analyze Biden’s proposals as of February 23, 2020. Biden would increase income and payroll taxes on high-income individuals and increase income taxes on corporations. He would increase federal

March 5, 2020
Brief