Most workers contribute to Social Security throughout their working lives and receive benefits after they retire. The balance between lifetime contributions and benefits determines the program’s sustainability and progressivity. This brief uses DYNASIM, the Urban Institute’s dynamic microsimulation model, to project lifetime benefits and taxes for people born between 1940 and 1999. The results show that most nondisabled

February 15, 2019
Brief
 

Concern is growing among some analysts that recent economic growth in the US has not translated to economic well-being across the board. This study focuses on the share of Americans in financial distress in 2017, a year of relatively low unemployment. We find that a third of moderate-income adults experience financial insecurity in the past 12 months. In addition, one in eight of them say they must turn to high interest rate

February 14, 2019
Research Report
 

Employment is a key step on the pathway to economic security, but having a job far from guarantees financial stability. This study finds that employment is not always an effective shield against financial insecurity. Among households with two working adults, about 23 percent experienced some form of financial insecurity and about 9 percent relied on alternative financial services to cover expenses. In addition, we find workers

February 14, 2019
Research Report
 

In 2007, as the scale and urgency of the housing crisis became clear, Congress authorized an emergency program to help Americans in danger of losing their homes. Between 2008–18, the National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling (NFMC) program helped homeowners in need by substantially boosting the nation’s capacity for foreclosure counseling. Implemented by NeighborWorks America®, the program served more than 2

February 13, 2019
Research Report
 

As states implement new training and professional development initiatives for home-based child care providers in response to the 2014 reauthorization of the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Act, opportunities exist for planning research and evaluation to learn more about these providers and how to improve the quality of care they provide. This brief is intended to support Child Care Development Fund (CCDF) lead

February 11, 2019
Research Report
 

Between 2006 and 2017, growth in spending per enrollee in Medicare and Medicaid was much slower than in private insurance according to a new analysis by John Holahan and Stacey McMorrow of the Urban Institute, with funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Medicare and Medicaid spending per enrollee grew 2.4 percent per year and 1.6 percent per year, respectively, compared to 4.4 percent per year for private insurance.

February 11, 2019
Brief
 

Finding high-quality child care that aligns with parents’ work schedules can be a significant barrier to successful employment and children’s healthy development. In the District of Columbia, many residents with young children work nontraditional hours, and the supply of licensed child development facilities is likely insufficient to meet that need. The extent of the need for child care during nontraditional hours in

February 11, 2019
Research Report
 

Steven M. Rosenthal, Senior Fellow at the Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center, testified before the House Ways and Means Subcommittee on Oversight during a hearing entitled “Legislative Proposals and Tax Law Related to Presidential and Vice-Presidential Tax Returns.” In his testimony, Rosenthal discusses the importance of disclosing tax returns of current and potential presidents and vice-presidents, the need for new legislation

February 7, 2019
Testimony
 

The Florida Tax Credit (FTC) scholarship program, the nation’s largest private school choice program, provides more than 100,000 scholarships annually that can be used to enroll in participating private schools. This study finds that students who enroll in private school through the FTC program are more likely to go to and graduate from college than their public school peers. Background A 2017 Urban Institute report found

February 4, 2019
Brief
 

The US social safety net is not a single program but rather consists of many different programs providing different kinds of help to a variety of individuals and families. We assess how many people are served by the current system and the characteristics of those recipients, considering six kinds of benefits that are means tested and provide regular monthly benefits. The US social safety net reaches a large and diverse

February 4, 2019
Brief
 

There are clear winners and losers in the competition to attract community development capital, including resources coming from the federal government, with some areas drawing more capital than others, even after adjusting for relative needs. Using our recently developed tool, Community Development Financial Flows, we  measured flows of federally sponsored or incentivized community development capital to all US counties

January 31, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

Texas’s school funding formula is a power-equalization formula, with different tiers of funding that aim to provide similar levels of funding for similar tax effort. In the 2017–18 school year, the state funding formula resulted in slightly progressive cost-adjusted funding across districts in terms of students’ poverty status, while white students and rural students, on average, are enrolled in districts with higher per student

January 31, 2019
Research Report
 

This report finds that the share of young adults (ages 25 – 34) living with their parents has increased from 12 to 22 percent between 2000 and 2017, adding 5.6 million more young adults living in parent’s home. The researchers examine the causes and consequences of this change and conclude that this could have along-term negative impact since, historically, young adults who live at home longer are less likely to move out in the

January 31, 2019
Research Report
 

A 2018 federal rule changing the definition of short-term health plans has created a new marketing opportunity for insurance companies. A short-term plan can now be sold as a substitute for traditional insurance even though it is exempt from the consumer protections prescribed by the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This study assesses short-term plan insurers’ marketing tactics in the wake of the new federal rules and how regulators

January 31, 2019
Research Report
 

Kindred aims to tackle issues of racial and economic segregation in DC schools and communities by supporting dialogue groups for parents. In June 2017, the Urban Institute conducted surveys and focus groups among Kindred participants at Marie Reed Elementary School. Participants responded favorably to their experiences. Survey and focus group data suggest that Kindred activities produce the shifts in parent perceptions and

January 31, 2019
Brief
 

The January 2019 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes new figures describing the cash-out share of all refinances, historical debt-to-income ratios for purchase originations, and months of housing supply. January 30th Chartbook call with guest Dave Stevens Housing Finance at a Glance: Monthly Chartbooks Archive.

January 29, 2019
Research Report
 

Body-worn cameras (BWCs) are small devices that police officers can affix to their person—in a head-, shoulder-, or chest-mounted position—that can audio and video record their interactions with community members. BWCs have received strong support from the public and, in recent years, widespread buy-in from police leadership and officers because of their ability to improve accountability and transparency and enhance

January 28, 2019
Journal Article
 

Work-related requirements—such as employment, job search, job training, or community engagement activities—are currently a condition of eligibility for some safety net programs. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), housing assistance and Medicaid each include work-related requirements in some states or localities for some beneficiaries. Recent proposals

January 25, 2019
Research Report
 

In 2018, insurers exited from many Affordable Care Act (ACA) nongroup insurance marketplaces, and remaining insurers increased their premiums sharply in many areas. In 2019, most areas experienced modest increases, or even decreases, in premiums,1 despite the pending elimination of the individual mandate penalties. And nationally, more insurers entered marketplaces than exited.2 To better understand these developments, we

January 24, 2019
Brief
 

Changes in Unrelated Business Income Taxes (UBIT) mandated by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) of 2017 will have significant costs for some nonprofit organizations. A survey of Independent Sector members and partner organizations in November 2018 reveals the costs and other implications of those changes. Costs of New Transportation Benefits UBIT Taxes: Over 200 nonprofit organizations estimate it will cost them more than $2.1

January 24, 2019
Research Report
 

Steep increases in the prevalence of opioid use disorder (OUD) among pregnant women have serious consequences for maternal and infant health. This study analyzed linked maternal and infant Medicaid claims data and infant birth records in three states in the year before and after birth occurring 2014 to 2015. In the year before and after birth, 2% of mothers had an OUD diagnosis and 6% had a substance use disorder (SUD) diagnosis

January 23, 2019
Journal Article
 

These fact sheets highlight key challenges and opportunities to generate ideas for policymakers, funders, and practitioners to better support career advancement beyond an entry-level job. The fact sheets focus on three areas: policy, programs, and research. The fact sheets reflect key points from the October 11, 2018, panel discussions and expert roundtable, Advancing to a Middle-Skill Job: Moving Beyond the First Step on a

January 22, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

These program profiles are a companion to the brief, Fulfilling the Promise of Career Pathways:  Strategies that Support Career Advancement. The profiles provide a more in-depth look at the career advancement programs highlighted in the brief. The organizations that lead these programs are: Instituto del Progreso Latino, Georgia Tech Supply Chain & Logistics Institute, Generation USA, the Washington Hospitality

January 22, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

The Health Profession Opportunity Grants Program (HPOG) provides Temporary Assistance for Needy Families recipients and other low-income people with education and training for occupations in the healthcare field that pay well and are in high demand. This 2-page fact sheet briefly describes the program and evaluation findings to date.

January 18, 2019
Brief
 

Every year, millions of workers in the United States develop new illnesses or injuries that limit their ability to remain on the job.  While some have access to employer-provided early intervention services that help them stay connected to the workforce, many do not.  Early intervention services support continued employment for workers who develop a new illness or injury, or experience the worsening of a chronic

January 17, 2019
Brief