This research report documents the training, policy development, and reconciliation activities of the six cities that took part in the National Initiative for Building Community Trust and Justice, an effort to promote more equitable, just, and respectful policing practices and improve relationships and trust between law enforcement and community members. We found that the training component of the Initiative, which exposed

August 8, 2019
Research Report
 

This brief examines changes in community sentiment about police within the six cities that took part in the National Initiative for Building Community Trust and Justice, an effort to promote more equitable, just, and respectful policing practices and improve relationships and trust between law enforcement and community members. In-person surveys of residents living in neighborhoods experiencing high rates of crime and

August 8, 2019
Brief
 

This report examines the degree to which activities associated with the National Initiative for Building Community Trust and Justice – a six-city effort to promote more equitable, just, and respectful policing practices and improve relationships and trust between law enforcement and community members – yielded their intended impacts on crime rates, departmental practices, and police-community interactions. Analyses

August 8, 2019
Research Report
 

Tackling the affordable housing crisis will require actors from every sector to finance housing development for low- and moderate-income people. We developed this guide to help nonprofit hospitals and health system understand how their institutional assets and prestige can support affordable housing development projects—and to offer practical information and encouragement to start investing in much-needed affordable housing.

August 8, 2019
Technical Paper
 

This brief assesses public support for Medicare for All proposals and some incremental reforms for expanding health insurance coverage using data from the March 2019 round of the Health Reform Monitoring Survey. We examine support for and opposition to Medicare for All among people with different characteristics, as well as important factors to adults who support, oppose, or are ambivalent toward Medicare for All. We find the

August 7, 2019
Brief
 

To provide a window into chilling effects resulting from proposed changes to the public charge rule, this brief shares insights from in-depth interviews conducted in March 2019 with 25 adults in immigrant families who reported that they or a family member avoided participating in safety net programs like Medicaid, SNAP, or housing assistance in 2018 because of immigration concerns. The study highlights fear and confusion about

August 7, 2019
Brief
 

Many retail sector employers and their partners are exploring strategies to increase retention and advancement for frontline workers. To support and expand the implementation of these efforts, this report profiles frontline retail workers, providing information on their characteristics, circumstances, and early career advancement. Our findings show that many frontline retail workers are highly educated and could be current

August 7, 2019
Research Report
 

This brief introduces the disaster reporting system in the United States administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and gives a quantitative summary of disaster experiences extending back to the 1950s. The brief highlights changes in the prevalence of wildfires, both their annual numbers and their place in the overall disaster reporting system. The analysis includes a summary of the losses from major

August 2, 2019
Brief
 

Many workers who experience a new health shock or develop a new functional limitation can manage their condition and continue working. Others, however, are forced to stop working. While data are readily available on how many people qualify for Social Security Disability Insurance and other forms of public assistance each year, less is known about those who leave the workforce and neither receive any public assistance nor view

August 2, 2019
Research Report
 

Despite large declines in the uninsurance rate under the Affordable Care Act, 7.5 million women of reproductive age (15–44) remained uninsured in 2017. Using data from the 2017 American Community Survey, we created state fact sheets that provide details on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of women with the highest uninsurance rates in each state and the District of Columbia. In 40 states, the fact sheets

August 2, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

Workplace giving has been one of the most distinctive elements of Americans’ tradition of small-scale charitable giving. But mounting anecdotal evidence shows that workplace giving is decreasing, likely because of changes in the nature of the workplace and in the economy more generally. This report examines the community origins of workplace giving, the evolution of workplace giving throughout the 20th century, the changing

July 31, 2019
Research Report
 

Bipartisan proposals to reform Social Security frequently include a provision to raise the Full Retirement Age (FRA). Policymakers supporting an increase in the FRA must also address what to do about the Earliest Eligibility Age (EEA), which is currently 62. Some proposals leave the EEA at age 62 and reduce benefits for those who claim benefits at this age. Other proposals increase the EEA in tandem with the FRA, delaying the

July 31, 2019
Research Report
 

Fiscal Democracy in the States: How Much Spending is on Autopilot? analyzes how much spending was restricted or partially restricted in California, Florida, Illinois, New York, Texas, and Virginia from 2000 to 2015. In this appendix, we document our data sources and methods, including reviews of research literature and credit analyst reports, state financial documents, and state and federal data sources. We also provide the

July 30, 2019
Research Report
 

This report was updated on August 29, 2019, to correct a citation in box 7. Proposition 111, approved in California in 1990, was incorrectly cited as Proposition 11 with a year of 1991.   Governors, lawmakers, and journalists often decry constitutional and statutory formulas, federal grant requirements, and court rulings they think excessively limit state budget decisions. Some observers estimate as much as 70 percent of

July 30, 2019
Research Report
 

Unhealthy alcohol and drug use is especially problematic among parents because of the effects on children. To reduce the extent and negative consequences of unhealthy substance use, it is recommended that health care providers screen and briefly intervene for unhealthy substance use and provide treatment if use is problematic enough to be a substance use disorder. We find considerable scope for providers to increase these

July 30, 2019
Research Report
 

The July 2019 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing cash-out refinances, mortgage credit availability, originator profitability and mortgage insurance activity. Housing Finance at a Glance: Monthly Chartbooks Archive

July 29, 2019
Research Report
 

The Social Security Administration each year processes millions of applications for Social Security Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income disability benefits. Currently, 10 states lack a second level review process, known as reconsideration, for disability claims that are initially denied and appealed. SSA has begun to reestablish the reconsideration stage in these states. This move has raised concerns and

July 26, 2019
Research Report
 

The share of people ages 16–24 working is very low relative to historical standards: the national youth labor force participation rate was 55.5 percent in July 2018, down from 69.1 percent in 1979. Youth employment experiences can lead to positive long-term outcomes, and the decrease in young people gaining these experiences is triggering what has been called a “youth employment crisis.” In this brief, we provide a detailed

July 25, 2019
Brief
 

Changes in federal immigration policies and heightened immigration enforcement over the last several years have caused fear and insecurity for many immigrant families across the country. In addition to stories of rising fear among families reported in the press, several studies have documented evidence of widespread anxiety and instability among immigrant families and children. A recent Urban Institute study shows that nearly

July 24, 2019
Brief
 

En esta hoja informativa, utilizamos datos recopilados en diciembre del 2018 de la Encuesta del Bienestar y Necesidades Básicas (WBNS) para analizar cómo las familias inmigrantes han evitado actividades en varios entornos públicos ante preocupaciones de inmigración. Nuestra evidencia sugiere que muchos adultos de familias inmigrantes podrían estar cambiando la manera en la que navegan sus vidas cotidianas. Será importante

July 24, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

In the first nationally comprehensive examination of charter school effects on school system segregation, we demonstrate that growth in charter school enrollment increases the segregation of black, Hispanic, and white students.   The effects, however, are modest because charter schools make up a small share of total enrollment and have different effects across different kinds of districts. Our analysis indicates that

July 24, 2019
Research Report
 

At its inception, the Social Security program did not cover most African American workers. Over time, through policy changes, the program has evolved into a critical source of income for African American families and has reduced the economic disparities between African American and white families. Several proposals have been offered over the past two decades to modify the program. Some proposals aim to improve benefit adequacy,

July 24, 2019
Brief
 

In this chartbook, we report changes in uninsurance among women of reproductive age (15 to 44) from 2013 to 2016 using data from the American Community Survey. We find that the uninsurance rate among women of reproductive age fell from 20.3 percent in 2013 to 11.6 percent in 2016 and that women of all ages, family structures, races and ethnicities, citizenship status, educational attainment, employment status, and incomes gained

July 24, 2019
Brief
 

Research and evaluation play an important role in supporting government agencies in making optimal policy, programmatic, and operational decisions. This guide provides an annotated list of selected written and online resources to support Child Care and Development Fund lead agencies seeking to build research and evaluation capacity. Listings point readers to user-friendly, practical tools that cover the following topics: (1)

July 22, 2019
Research Report
 

In this report, we examine a potential reform to Medicare that would simplify coverage for fee-for-service beneficiaries, streamline cost-sharing obligations under a uniform deductible for Medicare Parts A, B, and D services, and create an out-of-pocket maximum to protect beneficiaries from high financial burdens. We assess the potential impacts of the unified cost-sharing policy on beneficiary and program spending using MCARE-

July 22, 2019
Research Report