The Opportunity Zone Community Impact Assessment Tool User Guide is meant to accompany the use of the Assessment Tool which can be found here. The User Guide describes why the Assessment Tool was created, how and by whom it can be used, the principles around which the Tool was developed, and how to interpret and apply the results of the assessment. The User Guide also provides the methodology behind the Tool’s development and

January 9, 2020
Technical Paper
 

Conversations about the burden of student loan debt have become increasingly common. But for some Americans, the issue is not new. More than 1.5 million borrowers who first took out loans before 2000 still have debt. Borrowers with debt from the mid-1990s or earlier tend to have higher default rates, have lower credit scores, and live in lower-income neighborhoods than more recent student loan borrowers.   Reason Loans

January 8, 2020
Brief
 

This report explores how serving in the US military or the presence of a large military institution can ease racial and ethnic disparities in homeownership and income. We find that veterans have higher homeownership rates and incomes than the general population, even within racial or ethnic and age groups. Active-duty service members generally have lower homeownership rates but higher incomes. Using a regression analysis, we

January 8, 2020
Research Report
 

The December 2019 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing the size and value of the US housing market, first lien origination volume and composition, the share of loans in and near negative equity, and a special quarterly feature on GSE loan composition, repurchase rates, defaults, and loss severity. Housing Finance at

December 30, 2019
Research Report
 

Data quality has received much attention in the business community, but nonprofit service providers have not had the same tools and resources to address their needs for collecting, maintaining, and reporting high-quality data. While high-quality data can help improve outcomes, poor-quality data can do harm. This brief provides a basic overview of data quality management principles and practices that Promise Neighborhoods and

December 24, 2019
Brief
 

City leaders typically think about improving economic growth and improving inclusion and social cohesion as two separate challenges, often with economic development as a precondition to other social goals. Under this logic, a city or region would need to grow first; then, low-income or historically excluded residents could benefit from that growth—through job access, improved services and safety nets, or direct redistribution.

December 20, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

Expanding and sustaining the Promise Neighborhood model requires more than place-based, data-driven programming. This brief highlights Promise Neighborhood grantees that are developing partnerships to extend their impact beyond their neighborhoods to the state level. We explore how partnerships in California and Minnesota have established shared goals, invested their time and resources to achieve their goals, and engaged with

December 20, 2019
Brief
 

Across the country, Promise Neighborhood grantees are leveraging significant federal and local investments to improve outcomes for students and families in underresourced communities. In fall 2019, FourPoint Education Partners undertook a needs assessment to understand the financial landscape of Promise Neighborhood grantees and how they are approaching sustainability—what strategies they are employing, what challenges they are

December 20, 2019
Brief
 

The US Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit has issued a ruling in Texas v. United States, a case that challenges the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The Fifth Circuit remanded the case to the District Court; ultimately, the case is likely to be reviewed by the Supreme Court. If the Supreme Court finds that the entire ACA without the individual mandate penalties in place is unconstitutional (the argument

December 19, 2019
Brief
 

Policymakers in New Mexico, like those in many other states, are looking for ways to build on the Affordable Care Act to stabilize and increase coverage for their constituents. To help with those efforts, we examine the characteristics of uninsured New Mexicans, highlighting populations that could benefit from targeted policies. We estimate that there are 187,000 uninsured people under age 65 in New Mexico in 2019. This means

December 19, 2019
Research Report
 

A city’s ability to grow inclusively is tied to its residents’ financial health. When residents are financially insecure, they don’t have the same opportunity to benefit from and contribute to a city’s economic growth. To achieve inclusive growth, a city needs a fiscally sound budget that can fund city services and programs without placing undue burden on residents struggling to make ends meet; residents of all incomes who are

December 18, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

As findings rooted in data and community-based work increasingly draw a clear link between financial health and inclusive growth, some cities are piloting strategies that address this intersection to ensure all residents can contribute to and benefit from the city’s economic prosperity. These solutions move beyond general financial education to include strategies that cut across sectors and address structural barriers to shared

December 18, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

When the ACA was passed in 2010, Massachusetts and six other states had federal Medicaid waivers in place that expanded coverage to people not traditionally covered by Medicaid, such as low-income childless adults. The state’s long-standing commitment to health care coverage enabled Massachusetts to achieve the highest insurance rate in the country even before the ACA was in place. Nonetheless, the ACA increased and formalized

December 17, 2019
Research Report
 

The U.S. criminal justice system is defined and fueled by foundations and principles that uphold harmful power dynamics such as white supremacy, further destabilizing communities that face intersecting structural barriers. This paternalistic system is characterized by the imposition of punishments—including fees, fines, penalties, and deprivation of freedom and even life—that are meted out disproportionally to people of color

December 17, 2019
Journal Article
 

The National Institutes of Health, in collaboration with Boston University, developed a new tool for assessing individual functional ability with funding from the Social Security Administration (SSA). The tool, called the Work Disability–Functional Assessment Battery (WD-FAB), uses item response theory and computer adaptive testing to quickly interview people and systematically map physical and mental health functioning. In

December 17, 2019
Brief
 

With the release of the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education’s 2018–19 school report cards, parents and administrators now have access to information on school-level spending for all Massachusetts public schools. These data start to shed light on how funds are distributed among schools that differ by enrollment size, grades served, and student need, among many other factors. Most previous

December 16, 2019
Brief
 

The Annie E. Casey Foundation launched Family-Centered Community Change (FCCC) in 2012 to support three local partnerships seeking to help parents and children in high-poverty neighborhoods succeed together. Recognizing the roles that inequity and exclusion play in the communities’ economic and social conditions, Casey provided each FCCC initiative with trainings on racial and ethnic equity and inclusion (REEI) beginning in 2015

December 16, 2019
Brief
 

Incorporating Two-Generation Approaches in Community Change The Annie E. Casey Foundation launched Family-Centered Community Change (FCCC) in 2012 to support three local partnerships seeking to help parents and children in high-poverty neighborhoods succeed together. These partnerships, located in Buffalo, New York; Columbus, Ohio; and San Antonio, Texas, are each developing a more integrated set of services, including

December 16, 2019
Research Report
 

Since 2018, the Urban Institute has worked collaboratively with the Alameda County Community Food Bank (ACCFB) to assess food insecurity and unmet needs for charitable food assistance in its service area. In mapping food insecurity and marginal food security rates, our goal was to help the food bank deepen its understanding of its diverse and rapidly evolving client base and to leverage new data sources and methods to determine

December 16, 2019
Research Report
 

More than 286,000 families received evidence-based home visiting services in 2018. Despite home visiting’s reach, the need for services is greater than its footprint. This brief uses data from the recently released 2019 Home Visiting Yearbook to explore the following questions: (1) What percentage of potential beneficiaries and high-priority families are served by home visiting? (2) How does the percentage of children served

December 13, 2019
Brief
 

How we count matters. For decades, the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) has provided students free or reduced-price meals while equipping school administrators with data on students’ socioeconomic status. Counts of students receiving free or reduced-price lunch (FRPL) have long been used to allocate school funding, monitor for accountability, understand opportunity and achievement gaps, and ensure students receive the social

December 13, 2019
Research Report
 

In Chicago, the growing racial and ethnic wealth gap reflects the limits on opportunity that hold back many residents of color. Foundational building blocks of economic prosperity, such as owning a home or paying for college, require not just income from a job, but access to capital. In this report, we look at the effects of the racial and ethnic wealth gap nationally and in Chicago; explore which policies and practices created

December 12, 2019
Research Report
 

Many people in the US turn to charitable food sources, such as food pantries and free meal programs, when budgets run tight. In this brief, we use responses to 2018 Well-Being and Basic Needs Survey questions to provide new estimates of charitable food use by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and to explore how use of charitable food intersects with other material hardship measures and safety net program

December 11, 2019
Brief
 

This report is a preliminary assessment of the early implementation of the Moving On Initiative (MOI). Moving On offered long-term, stabilized tenants of permanent supportive housing (PSH) in San Francisco the chance to move into independent housing through the use of a Housing Choice Voucher to create openings in PSH for chronically homeless people living on the streets or in shelters. The report relies on interviews with a

December 10, 2019
Research Report
 

The rise of the gig economy has increased interest in the self-employment sector and highlighted the benefits and costs of these types of jobs. One understudied issue is that self-employment (which overlaps substantially with the gig economy) concerns a part of the tax code that is difficult for workers to comply with and for the IRS to administer. Using the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we analyze

December 10, 2019
Research Report