The National Institutes of Health, in collaboration with Boston University, developed a new tool for assessing individual functional ability with funding from the Social Security Administration (SSA). The tool, called the Work Disability–Functional Assessment Battery (WD-FAB), uses item response theory and computer adaptive testing to quickly interview people and systematically map physical and mental health functioning. In this

December 17, 2019
Brief
 

The Annie E. Casey Foundation launched Family-Centered Community Change (FCCC) in 2012 to support three local partnerships seeking to help parents and children in high-poverty neighborhoods succeed together. Recognizing the roles that inequity and exclusion play in the communities’ economic and social conditions, Casey provided each FCCC initiative with trainings on racial and ethnic equity and inclusion (REEI) beginning in 2015

December 16, 2019
Brief
 

Incorporating Two-Generation Approaches in Community Change The Annie E. Casey Foundation launched Family-Centered Community Change (FCCC) in 2012 to support three local partnerships seeking to help parents and children in high-poverty neighborhoods succeed together. These partnerships, located in Buffalo, New York; Columbus, Ohio; and San Antonio, Texas, are each developing a more integrated set of services, including

December 16, 2019
Research Report
 

Since 2018, the Urban Institute has worked collaboratively with the Alameda County Community Food Bank (ACCFB) to assess food insecurity and unmet needs for charitable food assistance in its service area. In mapping food insecurity and marginal food security rates, our goal was to help the food bank deepen its understanding of its diverse and rapidly evolving client base and to leverage new data sources and methods to determine

December 16, 2019
Research Report
 

More than 286,000 families received evidence-based home visiting services in 2018. Despite home visiting’s reach, the need for services is greater than its footprint. This brief uses data from the recently released 2019 Home Visiting Yearbook to explore the following questions: (1) What percentage of potential beneficiaries and high-priority families are served by home visiting? (2) How does the percentage of children served

December 13, 2019
Brief
 

How we count matters. For decades, the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) has provided students free or reduced-price meals while equipping school administrators with data on students’ socioeconomic status. Counts of students receiving free or reduced-price lunch (FRPL) have long been used to allocate school funding, monitor for accountability, understand opportunity and achievement gaps, and ensure students receive the social

December 13, 2019
Research Report
 

In Chicago, the growing racial and ethnic wealth gap reflects the limits on opportunity that hold back many residents of color. Foundational building blocks of economic prosperity, such as owning a home or paying for college, require not just income from a job, but access to capital. In this report, we look at the effects of the racial and ethnic wealth gap nationally and in Chicago; explore which policies and practices created

December 12, 2019
Research Report
 

Many people in the US turn to charitable food sources, such as food pantries and free meal programs, when budgets run tight. In this brief, we use responses to 2018 Well-Being and Basic Needs Survey questions to provide new estimates of charitable food use by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and to explore how use of charitable food intersects with other material hardship measures and safety net program

December 11, 2019
Brief
 

This report is a preliminary assessment of the early implementation of the Moving On Initiative (MOI). Moving On offered long-term, stabilized tenants of permanent supportive housing (PSH) in San Francisco the chance to move into independent housing through the use of a Housing Choice Voucher to create openings in PSH for chronically homeless people living on the streets or in shelters. The report relies on interviews with a

December 10, 2019
Research Report
 

The rise of the gig economy has increased interest in the self-employment sector and highlighted the benefits and costs of these types of jobs. One understudied issue is that self-employment (which overlaps substantially with the gig economy) concerns a part of the tax code that is difficult for workers to comply with and for the IRS to administer. Using the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we analyze

December 10, 2019
Research Report
 

This article from Police Chief magazine summarizes a recent study that examined body-worn camera (BWC) activation during the early deployment of the Anaheim, California, Police Department’s BWC program in 2015. Camera activations were examined across 40 officers to assess to what degree the officers used the cameras differently and how their use changed over time. Most important, this study was the first to determine how

December 5, 2019
Article
 

The Opportunity Zones tax incentive, created by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, was designed to spur investment in low-income and undercapitalized communities. How can stakeholders use the program to benefit disinvested neighborhoods and expand access to affordable housing? The experiences of investors, developers, government officials, and philanthropy representatives show how the incentive is working at the national and

December 4, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

For 62 years, the availability of private mortgage insurance (PMI) has helped millions of borrowers who have insufficient funds for a 20 percent down payment access homeownership. This chartbook quantifies the role of PMI in the agency mortgage market, detailing which borrowers use PMI, how they compare with borrowers who use other forms of mortgage insurance, how PMI-insured loans perform, and the role of PMI in reducing loss

December 4, 2019
Research Report
 

This brief uses data from the September 2019 round of the Health Reform Monitoring Survey to examine preferences between a public option for health insurance and Medicare for All among nonelderly adults, and compares preferences by political party affiliation, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health insurance coverage, health care experiences, and satisfaction with coverage.  We find the following: Among

December 3, 2019
Brief
 

For many decades, child welfare agencies—with few exceptions—only served children. But in the past 10 years, many states have extended foster care eligibility to age 21, and some provide supportive services through age 23. This brief highlights the types of challenges and emerging program and policy practices child welfare agencies and other providers and stakeholders may face in meeting the needs of transition-age youth in

December 2, 2019
Brief
 

This report is part of a project exploring strategies for addressing food insecurity at its roots by identifying the interconnected factors that contribute to it. We first examined the levels of food insecurity among adults and children in counties across the country, as well as measures of physical health, housing, income, and other contributing factors. Then, using a research approach called a Data Walk, we brought those data

December 2, 2019
Research Report
 

The November 2019 edition of At a Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing origination volumes, the cash-out refinance share, effective guarantee fees charged on new acquisitions, as well as mortgage insurance activities. Housing Finance at a Glance: Monthly Chartbooks Archive

November 27, 2019
Research Report
 

State government tax revenues fluctuated wildly throughout state fiscal year 2019, which ended on June 30th in 46 states. The fluctuations were largely related to income tax receipts and caused by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. Overall, state tax revenues showed robust growth in the second quarter of 2019 after much weaker growth in the fourth quarter of 2018 and modest growth in the first quarter of 2019. Most of the growth in the

November 26, 2019
Research Report
 

Rapid re-housing has become a large component of the response to homelessness in communities across the country. To date, no studies have found anything conclusive on variations in outcomes resulting from differences in program implementation or housing market characteristics. As part of an evaluation Urban is conducting for Hamilton Families, a homeless service provider in San Francisco, we conducted a scan of rapid re-housing

November 26, 2019
Brief
 

The long-term financial stability of families is a common concern among homeless service providers, but one that they rarely have the resources or capacity to address. As part of an evaluation the Urban Institute is conducting for Hamilton Families, a homeless service provider in San Francisco, we interviewed four programs focused on asset building, workforce development, work support strategies, and other approaches to improve

November 26, 2019
Brief
 

This brief estimates the individual and combined effects of three proposed regulatory changes to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). The proposed changes would tighten the criteria by which states request waivers from time limits for able-bodied adults without dependents who do not meet work requirements, restrict states’ ability to modify income limits and asset tests through broad-based categorical

November 25, 2019
Research Report
 

Mississippi enacted comprehensive criminal justice reform legislation (H.B. 585) in 2014. Among other reforms, the legislation created technical violation centers (TVCs) as alternatives to the use of lengthy prison sentences to respond to technical violations of supervision. Our analysis finds that Mississippi used fewer days of incarceration for technical violations in the post-reform period than in the pre-reform period. This

November 22, 2019
Brief
 

Racial and economic inequities in the US are growing, and rapid technological change can either promote inclusion or widen this divide. City leaders can use technological innovations to manage infrastructure and improve services, communicate with constituents, and make better decisions. But they must also be aware of the challenges that come with the disruptive force of new technological advancements. This report, which is based

November 21, 2019
Research Report
 

This report outlines an assessment of Uber’s integration of the Sexual Misconduct and Violence Taxonomy (clicking this link will take you to an external site) into its system of receiving and accurately categorizing reports of sexual harassment, sexual misconduct, and sexual assault from users of its platform. Uber’s approach to using these data in the development of their 2019 United States Safety Report is

November 21, 2019
Research Report
 

The apprenticeship movement is reshaping skills, policies, and programs in the United States at a critical moment in our country’s history. This reader offers a chorus of voices emanating from different countries and populations, echoing commitment to bright, sustainable workforce futures through a well-crafted approach to this talent development model. The collected chapters and vignettes address questions for businesses of all

November 19, 2019
Research Report