This policy brief investigates the relationship between child care subsidy policies and the quality of centers participating in the subsidy program. We find that the quality of these child care centers is higher in states with higher reimbursement rates and higher tiered reimbursement rates, even after controlling for a variety of other state differences. We hope that this exploratory analysis, based on statistical analysis of
This study assesses variation in the quality of the early care and education workforce across various center characteristics using the nationally representative National Survey of Early Care and Education. We explore whether quality varies systematically by program type, funding stream, structural characteristics of centers, or characteristics of children and families served and explore whether trade-offs exist between quality
In this brief, the authors explore methodological considerations for linking the Child Care Development Fund Policies Database to the National Survey of Early Care and Education (NSECE) to answer research questions such as Are Higher Subsidy Payment Rates and Provider-Friendly Payment Policies Associated with Child Care Quality? They focus on the challenges and solutions of transforming administrative subsidy policy elements and
Child care subsidies are critical for the well-being of low-income families, including parents’ economic success and children’s development. To inform state efforts to simplify access to child care subsidies and improve service delivery, this report highlights steps taken and lessons learned by five states that participated in the Work Support Strategies initiative between 2012 and 2015. These states worked to improve child care
In this brief, we examine the health coaching model of Harlem-based City Health Works. City Health Works coaches use an evidence-based curriculum and motivational interviewing to educate clients about their chronic disease and help them improve their nutrition, medication adherence, physical activity, stress management, and engagement with primary care providers. Lay coaches are hired locally, receive intensive training, and
This journal article presents findings from CMS’s Multi-Payer Advanced Primary Care Practice (MAPCP) Demonstration – through which Medicare, Medicaid, and private payers offered supplemental payments to 849 primary care practices. Since there was variation in the eight participating states’ demonstration designs, experiences, and outcomes, we used a case-ordered predictor-outcome matrix to identify the factors that
Approximately 3 million American adults lack access to both online and physical institutes of higher education. Research has identified "education deserts," where access to university campuses is limited by geography. This study is the first to examine the intersection of physical education deserts with online education deserts, where access to broadband needed for online education is limited. Although online education is not a
As concerns about retirement savings have intensified, many older adults have begun working beyond traditional retirement age. By working longer, they can improve their retirement security by increasing their future monthly Social Security payments and shortening the time they must rely on their savings. But does delaying retirement deepen income inequality for older adults by leaving those with health problems behind? Delayed
Current U.S. policy toward the financing of long-term services and supports (LTSS) underserves people who need care, overburdens families who care for them, and strains state budgets supporting Medicaid services when personal resources fall short. The fundamental LTSS financing problem is the absence of an effective insurance mechanism to protect people against the costs of extensive LTSS they may require over their lives.
We take a detailed look at US homeownership from three different perspectives: 1) an international perspective, comparing US homeownership rates with those of other nations; 2) a demographic perspective, examining the correlation between changes in the US homeownership rate between 1985 and 2015 and factors like age, race/ethnicity, education, family status, and income; 3) and, a financial benefits perspective, which compares
This brief presents findings from an analysis of young adults in the US who successfully moved beyond initial career pathway steps to attain middle-skill jobs. Using the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we examine the postsecondary and employment trajectories of the young adults through their early thirties who earn more than one postsecondary credential, compared to those who don't. We also explore the challenges
The Medicare program offers an option called Medicare Advantage in which private insurance plans compete with traditional Medicare. The Affordable Care Act set up marketplaces in which insurers compete for enrollees. Both programs provide government-subsidized health insurance coverage in a regulated market that encourages private plans to compete for market share based on premiums, quality, provider networks, cost-sharing, and
Research highlights the generally poor outcomes for youth in foster care transitioning to adulthood while acknowledging that distinct subgroups of youth may fare better or worse than others. The diverse experiences and needs of youth in foster care suggest that we should consider how well services target these needs when developing and evaluating programs. This report introduces a conceptual framework of the transition to
This brief summarizes findings from implementation, impact, and cost-benefit evaluations of Accelerating Opportunity (AO). AO is a career pathways initiative launched in 2011 that aims to help adults with low basic skills earn valued occupational credentials, obtain well-paying jobs, and sustain rewarding careers. AO was one of the first efforts to replicate and scale key elements of Washington state's Integrated Basic Education
Using the 2016 American Community Survey (ACS), this brief updates a previous analysis that examined health insurance coverage among children ages 3 and younger and their parents in 2015. High rates of coverage through Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) continued among young children and their parents in 2016, the third year after implementation of the major coverage provisions of the Affordable Care Act
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 allows owners of certain pass-through businesses (such as sole proprietorships, partnerships, and S corporations) to take a new deduction. However, the structure of the deduction is complicated because its generosity depends on many factors, such as the nature of the business activity, the business owner’s total taxable income, the wages paid by the business, and the value of business property.
We project the costs and distributional effects of alternative specifications of refundable income tax credits for family caregivers' out-of-pocket expenses and respite care benefits using the Urban Institute's Dynamic Simulation of Income Model. We ground our projections in estimates from the National Study of Caregiving calibrated to other sources to address measurement challenges and data limitations. Because the future is
In states that expanded Medicaid eligibility under the Affordable Care Act, nonelderly near-poor adults—those with family incomes of 100–138 percent of the federal poverty level—are generally eligible for Medicaid, with no premiums and minimal cost sharing. In states that did not expand eligibility, these adults may qualify for premium tax credits to purchase Marketplace plans that have out-of-pocket premiums and cost-sharing
This series of publications studies the National Institute of Justice (NIJ)-funded cross-site evaluation of seven Bureau of Justice Assistance FY 2011 SCA AORDP grantees. Second Chance Act Adult Offender Reentry Demonstration Projects – Perceived Successes and Sustainability Strategies This report shares positive impacts for seven grantee agencies and partner organizations receiving grants as Second Chance Act (SCA) Adult
The January 2018 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing housing credit availability, agency issuance activities, latest GSE risk-sharing transactions, and a special quarterly feature on GSE loan composition, repurchase rates, defaults, and loss severity. Housing Finance at a Glance: Monthly Chartbooks Archive.
Legislation recently introduced in the U.S. Senate would create a mechanism for states to offer their residents the opportunity to buy a Medicaid-based public insurance option. Eligible residents could use their premium tax credits to purchase these plans, and reduced cost-sharing requirements would apply as well. The bill could improve access to affordable health care in some states. However, there would be many differences
This brief is designed to help data intermediary organizations develop and improve part of the data management process known as ETL (Extract, Transform and Load). It provides advice and lessons learned from organizations in the National Neighborhood Indicators Partnership that successfully use ETL techniques. It is important to periodically review the ETL process to ensure current practices are efficient, producing high quality
Taxes defined Congress’s agenda for much of 2017, culminating in passage of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) in late December. Because of that new federal law, taxes will dominate many state legislative sessions in 2018. The TCJA changed many federal tax provisions, and how states choose to respond will have big effects on their tax revenue and taxes paid by their residents.
Conventional wisdom holds that U.S. productivity growth, the weakest it has been in more than a quarter-century, is the reason for today’s subpar GDP growth and low wages. But is the conventional wisdom correct? Rudolph G. Penner comments in this article which was originally published by International Economy, Fall 2017.
Like many mission-driven organizations, local data intermediaries share the challenge of maintaining financial sustainability and their leaders must understand the mechanisms by which they can sustain their work. Borrowing from origins in the private sector, a business model is a way to organize operations and understand one’s clients, revenue, and value, and the streams and products that connect them. This brief collects