The Trump administration finalized regulations expanding access to short term limited duration policies in early August 2018. These new regulations increase the maximum length of short-term, limited-duration insurance policies to just less than one year. These plans, sold to individuals and families, are not federally required to comply with the ACA regulations that prohibit annual and lifetime benefit limits, require coverage
The Affordable Care Act provided funding to allow states to upgrade their Medicaid and CHIP enrollment and renewal systems. States have implemented electronic application, eligibility determination, and renewal systems in different ways, on different timelines, and with different levels of success. Urban Institute researchers conducted case studies of two states (Colorado and Washington) with high rates of “real-time” Medicaid
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) ushered in a range of consumer protections designed to make it easier for individuals to obtain affordable, adequate health insurance in the individual market. In many states, however, individual market consumers have faced increasingly limited plan choices, relatively narrow provider networks, and rising unsubsidized premiums. In the past year, policy decisions made by Congress and the Trump
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services approved a Section 1115 Medicaid demonstration waiver in Kentucky that will require some Medicaid beneficiaries to work or fulfill qualifying community engagement activities to retain Medicaid coverage. In this brief, we investigate the work patterns of working Medicaid beneficiaries in Kentucky who are nonelderly, nondisabled, and who do not appear to qualify for student or
A quarter million federal direct student loan borrowers see their loans go into default for the first time every quarter, and an additional 20,000 to 30,000 borrowers default on their rehabilitated loans. Previous research shows that the likelihood of default is higher for certain borrowers, particularly black borrowers, borrowers who go to for-profit schools, those who leave school without a degree, and those from low-income
Maternal depression is a widespread public health concern that has been linked to negative impacts on child development and health outcomes. Within home visiting programs serving low-income women, maternal depression rates have been measured as high as 61 percent. Home visitors are uniquely positioned to help address maternal depression and can play an important role in conducting screenings and providing referrals to community
In 2008, the Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act gave states the option to extend the age of eligibility for federally funded foster care to 21. Twenty-five states and the District of Columbia have extended or are in the process of extending federally funded foster care with a safe, stable, and developmentally appropriate place to live. There are gaps in our knowledge of best practices for housing young
Many low-income Americans face challenges in the job market because of inadequate education and job skills, and low-income parents face particular challenges enrolling in activities to improve their skills and education levels because of the lack of affordable, quality child care. Local workforce development boards (LWDBs) set policies for and oversee a set of workforce programs and services funded under the Workforce Innovation
The FHFA and GSEs are one year away from moving Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to a single mortgage-backed security. The authors discuss the reasons for the effort, the final hurdles yet to be cleared and the significance If they succeed. In short, the authors argue, it is likely to result in one of the most significant developments of housing finance reform since the crisis.
There is a growing movement in institutional philanthropy toward grantee inclusion, which encourages more collaboration between foundations and their grantees. Grantee inclusion is becoming especially relevant because more foundations are incorporating public policy advocacy into their philanthropy. When foundations involve their grantees’ community input, they can bring more legitimacy to their role in policy debates. How
Children’s participation in Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) rose by 5 percentage points between 2013 and 2016. As a result, 1.7 million fewer Medicaid/CHIP-eligible children were uninsured in 2016. Participation was lower among adults than among children, and nearly 6 million Medicaid-eligible adults were uninsured in 2016. Click here to read the publication (Leaving Urban's website)
Research demonstrates that living in neighborhoods that are safe, healthy, and connected to highquality services, schools, and jobs can improve outcomes and economic mobility for children—if their families can afford to live in them. But how can we better understand which interventions most effectively support access to high-opportunity neighborhoods? And how can the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) target
This study examines how rising wage inequality and a boost in the federal minimum wage might affect future retirement income. Projections from DYNASIM, the Urban Institute’s dynamic microsimulation model, show that if the wage gap between college and high school graduates continues to grow, retirement incomes for high-wage workers would rise, worsening income inequality at older ages despite Social Security’s progressive benefit
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) missed an opportunity to help low-income childless workers, very low-income families with children, and families with young children – all groups where investments could be particularly productive. The child tax credit (CTC) and earned income tax credit (EITC) could be redesigned to lift millions of people out of poverty. Both could be highly-progressive policies designed to focus nearly all
In this article, Auerbach, Gale, and Krupkin discuss the federal budget outlook, examining long-term debt and the fiscal gap using recently updated data from the Congressional Budget Office and the Social Security and Medicare boards of trustees.
If the Trump administration’s 2019 budget were to be fully adopted, federal spending on children would be 6 percent lower over the next 10 years, compared with spending projections under current law. The largest proportional cuts would be to spending on early education and care programs, which would be reduced by 26 percent below baseline projections for 2019–28. Education spending on children would be reduced by 19 percent,
This paper updates the current denial rate for mortgages using the real denial rate (RDR) methodology developed in 2014. The RDR improves on the traditional denial rate measurement because it takes into account the differences in credit worthiness among borrowers. Accordingly, our RDR more accurately reveals the current levels of mortgage credit accessibility. Our updated results show that conventional mortgages have higher
The July 2018 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center's reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing agency refinance shares, housing credit availability, and first-time homebuyer share. Housing Finance at a Glance: Monthly Chartbooks Archive.
In the era of big data, private companies are accumulating information at an ever-increasing rate and are using the power of these data to derive greater and more detailed insights about all types of activity. Some companies are leveraging their data assets to improve public services and decision-making through the emerging field of data philanthropy. These companies responsibly share their data with researchers, nonprofit
Work is at the core of the American dream, bringing to people the promise of income, dignity, and security. The US social safety net has historically reinforced this work ethic, premised on employer-provided benefits in combination with public programs, policies, and workplace laws and regulations. Yet shifts in the economy and the nature of work have created challenges for the social safety net. There is growing concern that
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 eliminated the financial penalty of the Affordable Care Act’s individual mandate. States could reinstate a similar penalty to encourage health insurance enrollment, ensuring broad sharing of health care costs across healthy and sick populations to stabilize the marketplaces. This analysis provides state-by-state estimates of the impact on insurance coverage, premiums, and mandate penalty
In this paper, part of the Carbon Tax Research Initiative led by Columbia University’s SIPA Center on Global Energy Policy, we estimate how a carbon tax would affect the distribution of tax burdens across US taxpayers. We consider three carbon tax scenarios that would price carbon at roughly $14, $50, and $73 (in 2016 dollars) per metric ton starting in 2020 and increasing thereafter between 1 and 3 percent per year. We also
Restoring opportunity requires jobs that generate middle class incomes. Building a robust apprenticeship system can sharply increase earnings and the share of US workers entering rewarding careers. By emphasizing “learning by doing” as a paid employee, apprenticeships help workers gain a valued occupational qualification. They enhance youth development by providing a more engaging experience than schooling does and
Links between high school and careers are too weak for youth to transition successfully from school to careers. These deficiencies have contributed to a widening earnings gap between college and high school graduates. This article calls for the development and implementation of a large-scale youth apprenticeship system in the US. Such a system could strengthen student engagement, emphasize learning by doing and teamwork, and
This appendix describes the data and methodology used to estimate federal program and tax expenditures on children in Kids’ Share 2018: Report on Federal Expenditures on Children through 2017 and Future Projections.