This report identifies services that help low-income individuals and households achieve upward economic mobility and explores how affordable housing providers offer them. We begin by presenting key economic mobility concepts and definitions. We then discuss the research evidence on interventions across sectors and disciplines that help individuals and households to achieve upward economic mobility. In the third section of this

January 16, 2019
Research Report
 

As real wages stagnate, racial disparities grow, and housing prices soar in cities across the US, local governments are increasingly adopting laws and regulations that aim to reduce inequalities and improve access to economic opportunity for their residents. At the same time, states are increasingly enacting laws that limit or preempt local action in these areas, often relying on a thin or nonexistent evidence base to suggest

January 16, 2019
Brief
 

As real wages stagnate, racial disparities grow, and housing prices soar in cities across the US, local governments are increasingly adopting laws and regulations that aim to reduce inequalities and improve access to economic opportunity for their residents. At the same time, states are increasingly enacting laws that limit or preempt local action in these areas, often relying on a thin or nonexistent evidence base to suggest

January 16, 2019
Brief
 

As real wages stagnate, racial disparities grow, and housing prices soar in cities across the US, local governments are increasingly adopting laws and regulations that aim to reduce inequalities and improve access to economic opportunity for their residents. At the same time, states are increasingly enacting laws that limit or preempt local action in these areas, often relying on a thin or nonexistent evidence base to suggest

January 16, 2019
Brief
 

As real wages stagnate, racial disparities grow, and housing prices soar in cities across the US, local governments are increasingly adopting laws and regulations that aim to reduce inequalities and improve access to economic opportunity for their residents. At the same time, states are increasingly enacting laws that limit or preempt local action in these areas, often relying on a thin or nonexistent evidence base to suggest

January 16, 2019
Brief
 

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has been collecting encounter data from Medicare Advantage (MA) plans since 2012, and previously announced plans to use that data to re-estimate the MA risk adjustment model. This change would make risk scores more accurately reflect the relative costs of providing care in MA, but likely effects on the broader MA system are unclear. The Urban Institute and the American

January 15, 2019
Research Report
 

Local zoning codes affect a broad range of policies. For example, they can constrain housing supply and create affordability challenges (Ikeda and Washington 2015; Glaeser and Ward 2006), contribute to housing segregation (Greene at al. 2017; Pendall 2000), and determine how well a jurisdiction responds to changes in demographics and climate (Micklow and Warner 2014; Nolon 2013). Despite the importance of local zoning

January 15, 2019
Working Paper
 

The complex and interrelated challenges that place-based initiatives such as Promise Neighborhoods address require that many stakeholders be involved, informed, and inspired to act. Stakeholders must understand and buy into the initiative’s priority challenges, responsive strategies, and overall goals. This engagement is vital to effective implementation, including evaluating what works, deciding what to sustain, and investing

January 15, 2019
Research Report
 

This report summarizes findings from a national review of practice regarding police interactions with the community at shooting and homicide scenes. Based on interviews and focus groups with police personnel and community partners representing nine jurisdictions across the nation, this review concludes that procedurally just conduct at shooting scenes requires departments to establish a uniform vision of community engagement,

January 10, 2019
Research Report
 

Local officials, impact investors, and philanthropy have important roles to play in helping communities access Opportunity Zone financing that benefits current residents, especially those with low or moderate incomes. Using Chicago and Cook County as a case study, we identify steps these actors can take to attract helpful, and limit harmful, investments. We find that the Opportunity Zones selected in Chicago and Cook County

January 10, 2019
Brief
 

This report synthesizes findings from a scan of practice on police interactions with community members at homicide and shooting scenes, as well as from interviews with Oakland stakeholders on their experiences with homicide and shooting scene response. Drawing on interviews and focus groups with shooting survivors, family members of homicide victims, police personnel, and community partners in Oakland, California and across the

January 10, 2019
Research Report
 

This report explores how stakeholders involved in homicide and shooting scenes in Oakland, California perceive their interactions with law enforcement and community partners. This study draws on interviews with shooting survivors, family members of homicide victims, Oakland Police Department officers, and community service providers and partner staff. It found that survivors and family members desired interactions with law

January 10, 2019
Research Report
 

Probation is the most frequently used disposition in juvenile court, and has become the primary alternative to youth incarceration in the past two decades. Yet research suggests that juvenile probation may be ill-equipped to meet the diverse needs of justice-involved youth. To address this gap, the Annie E. Casey Foundation began investing in probation transformation work, which aims to re-envision probation as a focused

January 9, 2019
Research Report
 

In this report, the authors present the Supportive Housing Organizational Capacity Assessment Tool (SHOCAT). The SHOCAT can be used by organizations involved in any aspect of supportive housing for self-assessment and can also be used by researchers and policymakers to evaluate capacity-building efforts and by funders to help guide investments. The report describes the process for developing the tool and validating its

January 4, 2019
Research Report
 

This article describes the experiences and lessons learned from the implementation of gunshot detection technology (GDT) in three US cities. Data were derived from stakeholder interviews, community focus groups, and review of firearm-related criminal case files. Findings indicate that stakeholders view GDT to generate valuable investigative information, that officers are compliant with GDT response and protocols, and that

January 2, 2019
Journal Article
 

The Department of Treasury solicited comments as part of the process for the proposed rule “Investing in Qualified Opportunity Funds, IRS REG-115420-18.” As the IRS considers revisions to Form 8996, we recommend they consider including additional Fund- and transaction-level reporting requirements. Following precedent from prior economic development incentives and programs, nonburdensome reporting requirements would answer

December 28, 2018
Presentation
 

Tracking older adults in the Health and Retirement Study from 1992 to 2016, we find that about one-half of full-time, full-year workers ages 51 to 54 experience an employer-related involuntary job separation after age 50 that substantially reduces earnings for years or leads to long-term unemployment. The steady earnings that many people count on in their 50s and 60s to build their retirement savings and ensure some financial

December 28, 2018
Research Report
 

The recent Chronicle of Philanthropy How America Gives report highlighted the Washington, DC, metropolitan region as a place of exceptional giving—DC ranks high on the list of total charitable dollars given—and one of unmet “giving potential.” This report validates those findings but demonstrates that there is considerable variation among giving patterns within the region by providing a more granular analysis of its

December 21, 2018
Research Report
 

A recent survey of charitable giving practices at the state, county, and metropolitan level published by the Chronicle of Philanthropy sparked questions about the nature of the disparities in giving patterns between various locales and about whether they can be attributed to a localized culture of giving. The existence of such a culture requires the active shaping of charitable practice within a geographically based community

December 21, 2018
Research Report
 

The December 2018 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing the value of the housing market, nonbank originator shares in the agency market, and negative household equity. Housing Finance at a Glance: Monthly Chartbooks Archive.

December 21, 2018
Research Report
 

Virginia’s distinctive school funding formula is made up of multiple funding streams. Each program’s funding is generally determined based on the minimum cost of meeting program and staffing requirements, and responsibility for meeting these funding obligations is split between the state and districts. In the 2017 school year, the formula resulted in slightly progressive cost-adjusted funding across districts. Changes to the

December 20, 2018
Brief
 

Massachusetts’s funding formula—the mechanism through which state dollars for elementary and secondary education are allocated to school districts—is based on a per student funding model. A budget is calculated for each district based on student characteristics, and the state and local cities and towns share the responsibility for funding the districts’ budgets. Fiscal year 2018 (school year 2017–18) cost-adjusted funding to

December 20, 2018
Brief
 

In this report, we explore how and why local governments have turned to cooperation to boost economic development. We synthesize highlights from the literature, explore program features from two regional case studies, and share findings from interviews with local practitioners. Although research on the effectiveness of current practices is limited, we identify themes that can inform cooperative economic development.

December 20, 2018
Research Report
 

This Health Affairs blog post builds upon a recent report by the Georgetown University Center for Children and Families that found an increase in children’s uninsurance between 2016 and 2017. We find that the national uninsurance rate among parents did not improve between 2016 and 2017, consistent with other data sources finding that adults’ coverage gains under the ACA appear to be stalling. Further, while parents’ uninsurance

December 20, 2018
Brief
 

Using data from the December 2017 round of the Urban Institute’s Well-Being and Basic Needs Survey, this brief assesses the prevalence of material hardship among parents living with children under age 19, how this varies by family income and ages of children, and the characteristics of low-income parents who report hardships. We then identify factors associated with an increased or reduced risk of material hardship among parents

December 20, 2018
Brief