The Denver Supportive Housing Social Impact Bond Initiative (Denver SIB), launched in 2016 by the City and County of Denver, aimed to increase housing stability and decrease jail stays among people who were experiencing chronic homelessness and had frequent interactions with the criminal justice and emergency health systems. The initiative provided supportive housing (a permanent housing subsidy plus intensive

July 15, 2021
Research Report
 

Denver’s expansion of supportive housing through the Denver Supportive Housing Social Impact Bond Initiative is beginning to pay off for the city of Denver, its homeless residents, and a group of investors banking on social impact. This fact sheet highlights the costs and cost offsets associated with the Denver SIB and supportive housing’s effects on outcomes across the housing and homelessness assistance,

July 15, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

Denver’s expansion of supportive housing through the Denver Supportive Housing Social Impact Bond Initiative is beginning to pay off for the city of Denver, its homeless residents, and a group of investors banking on social impact. This fact sheet highlights the final investor payments from the outcomes-based social impact bond.

July 15, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

Denver’s expansion of supportive housing through the Denver Supportive Housing Social Impact Bond Initiative is beginning to pay off for the city of Denver, its homeless residents, and a group of investors banking on social impact. This fact sheet highlights the final results from the five-year evaluation.

July 15, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

Data sharing is a key component of cross-sector collaborations to address the health and social needs of people and reduce inequities. However, achieving efficient exchange of information across partners from health care, public health, and social services can be challenging. Several states use integrated data systems to link administrative individual-level data across multiple health and human services programs

July 15, 2021
Working Paper
 

Both children and parents experienced steep declines in uninsurance following implementation of the major coverage provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2014. Between 2013 and 2016, uninsurance fell by nearly 40 percent for both groups. But these coverage gains stalled starting in 2017 and 2018. In this brief, we use data from the American Community Survey to assess trends in coverage for children and

July 15, 2021
Research Report
 

As of July 2021, 12 states have not expanded Medicaid as permitted by the Affordable Care Act,  contributing to 5.8 million people with incomes below the federal poverty level being without coverage. One approach to help cover people in this “Medicaid gap” would be to have the federal government make Marketplace coverage available to those between current Medicaid eligibility levels and  the federal

July 14, 2021
Brief
 

Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have long struggled for belonging, safety, and equity in the United States, but this struggle has reached a new level. The Asian American Foundation, looking to inform its efforts and priorities, engaged the Urban Institute to conduct a landscape study of the AAPI advocacy ecosystem, surfacing the voices and perspectives of organizations leading social change to

July 14, 2021
Research Report
 

State taxes were upended in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic as governments shut down large parts of the economy. While overall state tax revenues have fared better than expected since then, state leaders have been closely examining existing tax policies and considering changes in the wake of the pandemic to adjust to the new fiscal and business environment. We surveyed state budget officials to

July 13, 2021
Research Report
 

This brief describes a community safety mapping exercise with young people in Brownsville, Brooklyn. This work was conducted with the Brownsville Community Justice Center, an organization that works with young people and uses creative placemaking to build a more inclusive neighborhood. The goal of the mapping exercise was to identify patterns in how safe or unsafe young people felt in different locations within

July 13, 2021
Research Report
 

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of housing and homelessness services as public health infrastructure. To understand how different communities across the United States adapted their homelessness responses during the pandemic to keep people safe and housed, we explored the steps taken in six places. This case study summarizes the response in Richmond, Virginia, which focused on providing safe

July 13, 2021
Brief
 

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of housing and homelessness services as public health infrastructure. To understand how different communities across the United States adapted their homelessness responses during the pandemic to keep people safe and housed, we explored the steps taken in six places. This case study summarizes the response in Maine, which focused on creating safety in congregate

July 13, 2021
Brief
 

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of housing and homelessness services as public health infrastructure. To understand how different communities across the United States adapted their homelessness responses during the pandemic to keep people safe and housed, we explored the steps taken in six places. This case study summarizes the response in rural and suburban Ohio. Because Ohio is a home rule

July 13, 2021
Brief
 

In response to the Office of Management and Budget’s Request for Information on Methods and Leading Practices for Advancing Equity and Support for Underserved Communities Through Government, Urban Institute experts shared their equity-related expertise to advance the aims of Executive Order 13985. This submission contains a series of tools, resources, and evidence developed by Urban Institute experts

July 9, 2021
Public Comment
 

In this mixed methods analysis, we examine the effects of Medicaid Section 1115 waivers of retroactive eligibility on beneficiaries and providers. We use data from qualitative interviews with stakeholders in five states that implemented these waivers and an analysis of hospitals’ Medicare Cost Report data. For decades, states have experimented with limiting or eliminating retroactive eligibility under these

July 9, 2021
Brief
 

As of December 2020, 36 states and the District of Columbia had expanded Medicaid eligibility under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We find that if the remaining 14 states had expanded eligibility in 2020, 6.8 million uninsured people would be eligible for Medicaid in those states—an increase of 4.8 million people over Medicaid eligibility for the uninsured without expansion.

July 8, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are a contracting model that can help governments leverage the financial and technical capabilities of private sector partners to address urgent service and infrastructure needs. This model attempts to align the incentives of public and private sector entities and improve the quality of service delivery through long-term contracts that facilitate risk sharing and link payment

July 8, 2021
Research Report
 

Public college cannot be an avenue for socioeconomic equity until it is accessible and affordable to students from all backgrounds. A large share of financing for public colleges comes from state governments, whose budgets are closely tied to state economic conditions, which means that public colleges often take the brunt of unexpected revenue shortfalls. To understand how state financial decisions affect

July 8, 2021
Research Report
 

In this report, we explore the ecosystem for attracting, guiding, and financing community development projects in Memphis, Tennessee. We quantify capital access across a range of investment types to identify potential geographic disparities, and we report findings from interviews with practitioners and stakeholders to understand the underlying causes of these investment patterns. Our study reveals that capital

July 8, 2021
Research Report
 

The Family-Centered Community Change (FCCC) effort, launched by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, supported local service partnerships over eight years (2012–19) in three neighborhoods with high poverty rates: one each in Buffalo, New York; Columbus, Ohio; and San Antonio, Texas. These efforts sought to develop more integrated sets of services to help adults and children succeed together in a “two-generation

July 8, 2021
Research Report
 

To identify, and subsequently address, racial disparities, changemakers need access to high-quality data disaggregated by race and ethnicity. In many important policy questions, data disaggregated by race and ethnicity are unavailable, and efforts to collect new, self-reported data to fill these gaps is costly, time-consuming, or impermissible. Imputation and other methods for appending or integrating different

July 7, 2021
Research Report
 

States reported solid revenue growth in the fourth quarter of 2020, but there is large variation across states and across revenue sources. Over a nine-month period (April through December 2020), state total tax revenues declined 2.2 percent compared to the same period one year earlier. Overall state tax revenues were stronger during the pandemic than initially feared, in part because of the generous federal

July 7, 2021
Research Report
 

While the loss mitigation toolkit has improved dramatically since the Great Financial Crisis, there is room for further action. In this brief, the authors identify two potential improvements to the toolkit that have received little focus. First, part of the FHA partial claim could be used to buy down the interest on delinquent loans for a period of time. This would maximize the number of FHA delinquencies that

July 6, 2021
Brief
 

The December 2018 First Step Act sought to address many long-standing problems in the federal prison system. This brief focuses on implementation of the act’s risk and needs assessment system, intended to incentivize people in federal prison to pursue recidivism reduction programming that can sometimes reduce their time behind bars. We summarize that system’s key requirements and major takeaways so far; detail

July 6, 2021
Brief
 

Before its Raise the Age legislation in December 2019, North Carolina was one of the few states that still automatically charged 16- and 17-year-olds as adults in its justice system. In 2013, a group of stakeholders from Durham County, North Carolina, started the Misdemeanor Diversion Program (MDP) to prevent 16- and 17-year-olds from entering the justice system. The first of its kind in North Carolina, the

July 6, 2021
Research Report