The Social Security Administration each year processes millions of applications for Social Security Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income disability benefits. Currently, 10 states lack a second level review process, known as reconsideration, for disability claims that are initially denied and appealed. SSA has begun to reestablish the reconsideration stage in these states. This move has raised concerns and

July 26, 2019
Research Report
 

The share of people ages 16–24 working is very low relative to historical standards: the national youth labor force participation rate was 55.5 percent in July 2018, down from 69.1 percent in 1979. Youth employment experiences can lead to positive long-term outcomes, and the decrease in young people gaining these experiences is triggering what has been called a “youth employment crisis.” In this brief, we provide a detailed

July 25, 2019
Brief
 

At its inception, the Social Security program did not cover most African American workers. Over time, through policy changes, the program has evolved into a critical source of income for African American families and has reduced the economic disparities between African American and white families. Several proposals have been offered over the past two decades to modify the program. Some proposals aim to improve benefit adequacy,

July 24, 2019
Brief
 

In this chartbook, we report changes in uninsurance among women of reproductive age (15 to 44) from 2013 to 2016 using data from the American Community Survey. We find that the uninsurance rate among women of reproductive age fell from 20.3 percent in 2013 to 11.6 percent in 2016 and that women of all ages, family structures, races and ethnicities, citizenship status, educational attainment, employment status, and incomes gained

July 24, 2019
Brief
 

Changes in federal immigration policies and heightened immigration enforcement over the last several years have caused fear and insecurity for many immigrant families across the country. In addition to stories of rising fear among families reported in the press, several studies have documented evidence of widespread anxiety and instability among immigrant families and children. A recent Urban Institute study shows that nearly

July 24, 2019
Brief
 

En esta hoja informativa, utilizamos datos recopilados en diciembre del 2018 de la Encuesta del Bienestar y Necesidades Básicas (WBNS) para analizar cómo las familias inmigrantes han evitado actividades en varios entornos públicos ante preocupaciones de inmigración. Nuestra evidencia sugiere que muchos adultos de familias inmigrantes podrían estar cambiando la manera en la que navegan sus vidas cotidianas. Será importante

July 24, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

In the first nationally comprehensive examination of charter school effects on school system segregation, we demonstrate that growth in charter school enrollment increases the segregation of black, Hispanic, and white students.   The effects, however, are modest because charter schools make up a small share of total enrollment and have different effects across different kinds of districts. Our analysis indicates that

July 24, 2019
Research Report
 

In this report, we examine a potential reform to Medicare that would simplify coverage for fee-for-service beneficiaries, streamline cost-sharing obligations under a uniform deductible for Medicare Parts A, B, and D services, and create an out-of-pocket maximum to protect beneficiaries from high financial burdens. We assess the potential impacts of the unified cost-sharing policy on beneficiary and program spending using MCARE-

July 22, 2019
Research Report
 

In this brief, we use American Community Survey data from 2010 to 2017 to examine trends in uninsurance among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic women who reported giving birth in the past 12 months. We find that uninsurance among new mothers fell between 2010 and 2017 for all three groups. Despite coverage gains, nearly half a million new mothers remained uninsured in the United States in 2017. Finally,

July 22, 2019
Brief
 

Research and evaluation play an important role in supporting government agencies in making optimal policy, programmatic, and operational decisions. This guide provides an annotated list of selected written and online resources to support Child Care and Development Fund lead agencies seeking to build research and evaluation capacity. Listings point readers to user-friendly, practical tools that cover the following topics: (1)

July 22, 2019
Research Report
 

Private school choice programs are rapidly gaining traction, with nearly 450,000 student participants in 2019—an increase of 300,000 students in just 15 years. This report evaluates how well some of these programs prepare students for college by examining college enrollment and completion data from the Florida Tax Credit scholarship program, the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program, and the Washington, DC, Opportunity Scholarship

July 19, 2019
Research Report
 

A previous version of this abstract incorrectly said that Chicago’s Neighborhood Opportunity Fund was created in 2019. It was created in 2016 (corrected 7/19/19).   Commercial corridors are the cornerstones of many American communities. These bustling epicenters provide opportunities for employment, neighborhood engagement, and creation of community identity. However, many commercial corridors have been neglected by

July 18, 2019
Brief
 

This is a qualitative study of low-wage workers in two Minnesota communities who recently experienced either voluntary or involuntary job separation. The study confronts a false dichotomy that people are either working or on public assistance. The study analyzes workers’ experiences in low-wage, unstable jobs, reasons for separating from jobs, and the roles public assistance and other supports play in their lives. The study

July 18, 2019
Research Report
 

In this brief, we list the 10 major business tax expenditures with the largest revenue losses, as defined by the Office of Tax Analysis (OTA) of the US Treasury Department and the Congressional Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT). We provide a brief description of each provision and briefly summarize the rationale for the provision and its effects.

July 17, 2019
Brief
 

In this brief we consider the largest nonbusiness tax expenditures in the individual income tax. We provide a description of these provisions, estimates of their cost and the distribution of their tax benefits across income groups, and briefly summarize their effects. We consider tax expenditures for business income in a separate brief. This latter category includes tax benefits people claim on their individual income tax

July 17, 2019
Brief
 

State government tax revenues from major sources declined in the fourth quarter of 2018 compared with the same quarter in 2017, mostly because of declines in state income tax revenues. The declines in income tax collection are partially attributable to the disappearing impact of incentives created under the TCJA to accelerate payments of state and local income taxes into tax year 2017. However, most states saw positive April

July 16, 2019
Research Report
 

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 imposed a new tax on investment income for some private nonprofit colleges and universities with large endowments. This move was met with strong objections from the institutions affected and throughout higher education, as well as from other observers concerned about the tax’s motivation and its implications. Proponents of taxing endowment income say this policy could increase educational

July 16, 2019
Brief
 

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 imposed a new tax on investment income for some private nonprofit colleges and universities with large endowments. This move was met with strong objections from the institutions affected and throughout higher education, as well as from other observers concerned about the tax’s motivation and its implications. Proponents of taxing endowment income say this policy could increase educational

July 16, 2019
Research Report
 

Urban parks and green space provide significant tangible and intangible benefits for cities and their residents. However, for residents and communities to take full advantage of these benefits, parks must be accessible and high quality. Historically, low-income neighborhoods and communities of color have had faced barriers in accessing quality parks. To bridge these gaps and achieve “park equity” (all residents

July 16, 2019
Research Report
 

This report offers a comprehensive guide to inform correctional administrators in their efforts to reduce barriers to incarcerated parents’ contact and communication with their children. Informed by leading experts in the field and individuals directly affected by parental incarceration, the guide describes many low-cost, high-impact practices and provides administrators with evidence on the effectiveness of recommended

July 15, 2019
Research Report
 

This brief provides a landscape analysis of how financial technology (Fintech) is impacting the way people buy, sell and finance their homes. We explore fintech’s impact in each of five phases (prebuying, buying and selling, mortgage searching, mortgage lending and postpurchase), describing the key players, the roles they play, and identifying gaps in fintech offerings. We explore why certain segments of the market might be less

July 15, 2019
Brief
 

The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) published a proposed rule in the Federal Register on May 10, 2019 that would prohibit “mixed-status” families—families whose members have a mix of eligible and ineligible immigration statuses—from receiving federal housing assistance. We oppose the rule because it would require families to choose between remaining with their families and keeping a roof over their head.

July 15, 2019
Public Comment
 

The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program provides eligible low-income families with cash aid, commonly referred to as “welfare.” However, not every family that is eligible for TANF under their state’s policies receives benefits. In 2016, an estimated 24.9 percent of eligible families received cash grants, slightly less than the 26.3 percent estimated for 2015. These eligibility estimates used to compute the

July 11, 2019
Brief
 

Governments and other funders of social services are increasingly interested in ways to measure, incentivize, and emphasize performance as part of planning and budgetary decisionmaking. Ongoing innovation in the field has led to the development of creative strategies and ideas with an abundance of terms used to describe them. Different stakeholders often use different terminology for the same or similar concepts and no standard

July 9, 2019
Brief
 

Urban blight (i.e., the existence of deteriorating, substandard, vacant, and abandoned properties) continues to affect thousands of communities across the country, contributing to declining housing values, increases in crime, and overall neighborhood disinvestment and distress. As the first responders tasked with addressing urban blight, local governments and nonprofit partners often have insufficient funds and capacity to

July 1, 2019
Brief