The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act provided most US households with one-time economic impact payments to mitigate the negative economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.  The Internal Revenue Service was responsible for distributing the payments, which were rapidly deposited into bank accounts or later mailed to recipients. New mechanisms were established to send payments to

July 16, 2020
Brief
 

Demetra Nightingale, Institute fellow, testified before the US House Committee on Small Business, Subcommittee on Innovation and Workforce Development. The testimony focused on two questions: What is the role of the nation’s workforce development system, particularly during the current economic crisis? And, how might small businesses maximize services available through the workforce system?

July 16, 2020
Testimony
 

Many immigrant families are experiencing disproportionate economic and financial challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, challenges that are more acute because of recent changes to federal immigration policy. Like many families around the country, immigrants in Houston are experiencing “chilling effects,” avoiding benefits and other supports for themselves or their children out of fear of the new public charge

July 16, 2020
Research Report
 

Immigrants in Las Vegas are currently navigating many challenges, including disproportionate economic hardship caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and barriers to accessing safety-net supports in light of recent changes to federal immigration policy. A revised “public charge rule,” which took effect in February 2020, makes receipt of Medicaid, food stamps, and certain other public benefits a negative factor in

July 16, 2020
Research Report
 

This chartbook explores the implications of the tax-advantaged treatment of pass-through income enacted as part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (TCJA). Section 199A of the TCJA allows a deduction from taxable income of 20 percent of certain pass-through income. We look specifically at the incentives that deduction created for taxpayers to shift the form of entity through which they choose to receive income

July 15, 2020
Brief
 

The primary goals of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) were to increase the availability and affordability of health insurance coverage and thereby improve access to needed health care services. Numerous studies have overwhelmingly confirmed that the law has reduced uninsurance and improved affordability of coverage and care for millions of Americans. Not everyone believed that the ACA would lead to positive

July 14, 2020
Journal Article
 

This research project seeks to identify changes to the built environment that small and medium-size cities can make to promote health and health equity. We focus specifically on small and medium-size cities—that is, cities whose populations are less than 250,000—because little research explores how small and medium-size cities are implementing policies, plans, programs, project, and pilots to address the health

July 14, 2020
Research Report
 

Job losses soared in March and April 2020 because of the coronavirus pandemic, and many economists forecast a long and slow economic recovery. For some people, losing their job means losing the health insurance coverage they had through their job. In this paper, we use microsimulation to take full advantage of the limited information currently available. Our microsimulation model, the Health Insurance Policy

July 13, 2020
Brief
 

The recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic is expected to lead to losses of employer-sponsored health insurance coverage (ESI) and a rise in uninsurance, testing the health care safety net established by the Affordable Care Act (ACA). In this brief, we provide the first nationally representative estimates of changes in coverage during the initial months of the recession. We focus on changes occurring between

July 10, 2020
Brief
 

The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting economic downturn are posing new challenges for families seeking health care. Not only have many providers rescheduled patient visits or closed their practices because of the pandemic, but patients have also shied away from seeing their regular physicians. Forgone or delayed care because of cost or fear of exposure to the novel coronavirus will not affect everyone the same way

July 10, 2020
Brief
 

The primary health insurance coverage reforms of the Affordable Care Act took effect on January 1, 2014. Between 2013 and 2016, the uninsurance rate for nonelderly Americans from birth to age 64 fell every year, and 18.5 million more Americans had health insurance coverage in 2016 than in 2013. However, between 2016 and 2017, uninsurance increased by 0.2 percentage points. Using the American Community Survey, we

July 9, 2020
Research Report
 

The Statistics of Income division of the Internal Revenue Service releases an annual public-use file of individual income tax returns that is invaluable to tax analysts in government agencies, nonprofit research organizations, and the private sector. However, the Statistics of Income division has had to take increasingly aggressive measures to protect the data against growing disclosure risks, such as a data

July 9, 2020
Research Report
 

School-level achievement results drive high-stakes decisions but are often a reflection of the students a school serves, rather than the quality of the school itself. In this report, we assess whether publicly available data on school test scores and student characteristics can be used to generate high-quality measures of schools’ effects on student achievement. We find that adjusting for student demographics

July 9, 2020
Research Report
 

“New mobility” technologies, such as car sharing, ride sharing, ride sourcing, electric scooters, and dockless and docked bike sharing, are providing residents a growing number of options to travel within and across neighborhoods (Clewlow, Foti, and Separd-Ohto 2018). These forms of mobility provide on-demand transportation options and operate outside traditional public transportation systems. As new mobility

July 7, 2020
Research Report
 

To inform federal and state decisions about policies to mitigate material hardship created by the current economic and public health crises, Urban is using its Analysis of Transfers, Taxes, and Income Security (ATTIS) microsimulation model to project poverty rates for 2020. We project that without the current COVID response policies in place (no stimulus checks, and no expansions to SNAP or unemployment benefits

July 6, 2020
Brief
 

On May 20, 2020, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency issued a final set of regulations intended to modernize the Community Reinvestment Act. While some improvements were made from the proposed regulations, the new regulations suffer from four big problems: There is no evidence of the impact of the new regulations; The primary metric used for assessing CRA compliance neglects community needs; The

July 2, 2020
Brief
 

This brief presents interim findings from the first year of Urban’s assessment of Warren County, Ohio’s Child Assessment and Response Evaluation (CARE) project. CARE—a cross-agency initiative between law enforcement, first responders, and child service agencies--was designed to quickly assess children’s exposure to trauma after witnessing an adult’s substance overdose and connect families to services and

July 1, 2020
Brief
 

This report describes the Tax Policy Center (TPC) Microsimulation Model’s revamped health module.  The TPC tax model uses the health module for simulating tax expenditures for health care, analyzing changes in the tax treatment of employer-provided health benefits, and evaluating health-related taxes and credits. The new health module improves upon the prior one in a number of ways. The new health module is

July 1, 2020
Research Report
 

Federal tax law provides several tax benefits for homeowners. This chartbook focuses on the home mortgage interest deduction. We provide updated estimates of the distributional effects of the home mortgage interest deduction, show how those estimates could change if people pay down their home mortgages in response to an elimination of the deduction, and provide estimates of revenue-neutral reform alternatives

July 1, 2020
Brief
 

The Urban Institute developed the Analysis of Transfers, Taxes, and Income Security (ATTIS) model to forecast the potential impacts of policy changes to safety-net programs on individuals and families at both the national and state levels. ATTIS is a powerful tool to provide estimates by state because it starts with a baseline of data from the US Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS). The ACS, which

July 1, 2020
Fact Sheet
 

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to take a severe toll on the US labor market. In this brief, we examine the pandemic’s effects on US adults’ employment and incomes and the extent to which those suffering economic hardship have been able to access unemployment benefits. To do so, we use new data from the first wave of the Urban Institute’s Coronavirus Tracking Survey, a nationally representative survey of

June 30, 2020
Brief
 

In this brief, we examine how material hardship and worries about meeting basic needs changed after implementation of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, which expanded eligibility and benefits for unemployment insurance (UI) and authorized one-time economic impact payments to most US households to mitigate the negative economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. To do so, we use new

June 30, 2020
Brief
 

Harmful traditional practices (HTPs) are forms of gender-based violence, sustained by tradition, that are destructive to the well-being of women and girls subjected to them and to their communities’ development prospects. HTPs are often seen as primarily issues in rural areas, but the available evidence suggests a more nuanced picture. This brief seeks to better understand the drivers of HTPs in urban areas and

June 30, 2020
Research Report
 

Women traveling on public transportation in cities experience gender-based violence, particularly sexual harassment, which harms their social and economic well-being. Several interventions to address gender-based violence on public transportation are gaining traction, although the evidence base supporting them is limited. Strategies that address this violence should acknowledge that (1) women have specific needs

June 30, 2020
Research Report
 

This brief examines insurer responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted structured discussions with 25 different insurers across the country to assess the impact the pandemic has had on their companies as well as actions they have taken to aid in the pandemic response. From a coverage perspective it appears that many employers have kept workers enrolled in benefits longer than anticipated and so insurers

June 29, 2020
Brief