If a single mother earns $25,000 per year, can she receive a subsidy to help pay for child care? What if she decides to attend a training program? If she does qualify for a subsidy, how much will she have to pay out of pocket? The answers to these questions depend on a family’s exact circumstances. Child care subsidies are provided through a federal block grant program called the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF). Within

April 2, 2019
Brief
 

More than 1.6 million children in the United States have at least 1 parent in the military, including at least 600,000 children under age 6, according to estimates from the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). While parenting under any circumstances can be challenging, military families often face scenarios that can make it harder to parent effectively. The programs profiled in this brief can inform both the development of military

April 1, 2019
Brief
 

The federal government is considering a proposed change to long-standing policy in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) that would limit states’ ability to waive work-related time limits for able-bodied adults without dependents (referred to as “ABAWDs” in statute) who receive nutrition assistance through the program. Nearly all states waived work-related time limits during the Great Recession. In 2016, Kentucky

March 29, 2019
Research Report
 

This report examines how adjustments to Florida’s length of stay requirements would reduce the state’s prison population with minimal impact on additional justice system contact. One in three people in the Florida prison population (34%), if released immediately, would experience no additional justice system contact during the balance of their original prison terms, even with no additional reentry support. Adjustments to reduce

March 28, 2019
Brief
 

In response to declining youth arrests and research demonstrating the detrimental effects of youth incarceration, states and localities have begun to fundamentally shift their youth justice approach towards community-based strategies to both prevent and respond to harmful and illegal behaviors. Although this new approach offers financial savings over the outdated and expensive institutional confinement model, building an array

March 27, 2019
Research Report
 

The March 2019 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing first lien origination volume, cash-out refinances, the nonbank mortgage origination share, and the share of homes in or near negative equity. Housing Finance at a Glance: Monthly Chartbooks Archive

March 27, 2019
Research Report
 

Effective marginal tax rates measure how a household’s material resources change as its earned income rises. For example, when a household’s earnings from work rise by $100, its net resources may rise by less than $100 as those earnings may be subject to payroll and federal, state, and local income taxes, and the size of any public assistance payments the household receives may fall. This paper describes our analysis of the

March 27, 2019
Brief
 

This analysis provides information on some of the consequences should a case pending before the US Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit be decided in favor of the plaintiffs. The plaintiffs argue that the entire Affordable Care Act be eliminated due to the fact that he individual mandate penalties were set to $0 beginning with plan year 2019. We estimate the state-by-state implications of full ACA repeal for insurance coverage

March 26, 2019
Brief
 

Children of immigrants will make up a critical share of our nation’s future workforce, but they are less likely than other children to participate in early education programs known to support school readiness and long-term productivity. This study describes the characteristics and enrollment of children of immigrants using the most current and comprehensive dataset available: the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten

March 22, 2019
Research Report
 

With 2020 decennial census fast approaching, communities around the country are mobilizing to reach the goal of counting every person, only once, and in the right place. Organizations with analytic and coding skills can contribute their expertise to help their local planning and outreach efforts succeed. Local data intermediaries, like the members of the National Neighborhood Indicators Partnership, are natural players to join

March 22, 2019
Brief
 

The Federal Work-Study (FWS) Program allocates funding to colleges and universities to pay a portion of the wages of student workers.  Republicans and Democrats have recently proposed adjustments to the allocation formula, which is based primarily on institutions’ historical participation in the program, rather than students’ financial circumstances. This change would reduce inequities but would not go far in

March 21, 2019
Brief
 

This brief is an update of a 2017 analysis examining the characteristics of ACA marketplace rating regions with one or two participating insurers. We found that the number of markets with one or two marketplace insurers has decreased between 2018 and 2019, meaning markets have become more competitive this year. However, they have not yet regained the level of competition they had in 2017. In regions with one insurer, the median

March 21, 2019
Brief
 

The Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP) reduces Social Security benefits for retirees who also draw pension benefits from government employment not covered by Social Security. The Equal Treatment of Public Servants Act, a recently introduced congressional bill, would change how benefits are reduced. In this brief, we explore how the bill would improve the fairness of the adjustment for many beneficiaries, but also reduce Social

March 20, 2019
Research Report
 

New York City shows a tremendous need for robust social services. Nearly 3.8 million people (45 percent of residents) live in poverty or just above the federal poverty level—and income inequality continues to increase. The scope and scale of these issues, among others, require an extensive mobilization of resources to respond effectively, but organizations often lack the capacity to do so. Approximately 5,000 community-

March 14, 2019
Research Report
 

One of the often-discussed proposals to reform the health care system is a single-payer plan, sometimes called “Medicare for All.” Arguments for and against are wide ranging. There is also considerable confusion as to what “single payer” means and how it might operate. Consequently, this brief presents both a general picture of the most frequently mentioned single-payer proposal, and we delineate the advantages and disadvantages

March 12, 2019
Brief
 

On March 12, 2019, Mark Mazur testified in front of the 116th United States House of Representatives Committee on Ways and Means, Subcommittee on Select Revenue Measures for a hearing entitled, "Temporary Policy in the Internal Revenue Code."

March 12, 2019
Testimony
 

The Affordable Care Act helped reduce financial barriers to birth control. But many women still face barriers, including real or perceived cost. In this brief, we summarize findings from interviews with 30 women about their decisions related to birth control, the importance of birth control in their lives, and their concerns about future access.

March 11, 2019
Brief
 

State government tax revenues have fluctuated wildly over the past year largely because of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act passed in late December 2017. Overall, year-over-year growth in state tax revenues was strong in the third quarter of 2018 but weaker than the growth observed in the final quarter of 2017 and the first half of 2018. Preliminary state government tax data for the fourth quarter of 2018 indicate declines in personal

March 11, 2019
Research Report
 

Income inequality is a suboptimal measure of inclusion at the city level. A low level of inequality can reflect the exclusion or displacement of low income residents, or it can reflect a lack of opportunity overall. Using data for 274 U.S. cities for the years 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010, we create more complete measures of both economic and racial inclusion. We then compare these inclusion measures with the Gini coefficient

March 11, 2019
Research Report
 

While the US government sector employs about 15 percent of nonfarm workers, federal, state, and local governments have not made substantial use of apprenticeships to enhance the skills of their workforce, increase productivity, and widen access to government positions. This report examines steps undertaken by Kentucky to build talent for state government through apprenticeship. The early outcomes are promising: departments can

March 8, 2019
Research Report
 

The 11th Street Bridge Park aims to create a lively pedestrian span across the Anacostia River that adds recreational, cultural, and environmental value for the District of Columbia while bringing greater economic opportunity and inclusion to longtime residents of the surrounding neighborhoods. The 1,200-foot bridge is slated for completion in 2023, and Bridge Park planners, nonprofit partners, residents, underwriters, and other

March 7, 2019
Research Report
 

Transitional youth are young people ages 16 to 24 who leave foster care without being adopted or reunited with their biological families and/or who are involved in the juvenile justice system, where they may be in detention or subject to terms of probation. With childhoods often marked by trauma and a lack of stability, transitional youth face notoriously poor outcomes across many areas of life. Pay for success (PFS) may provide

March 7, 2019
Research Report
 

There is a significant lack of mortgage financing available for low-cost homes, which many first-time homebuyers and lower income families rely on to move into homeownership. Earlier research on small-dollar mortgages explains the market deficit and landscape. In this study, the researchers show that the commonly held perception that small-dollar mortgages are riskier than larger mortgages is not accurate. While significantly

March 6, 2019
Brief
 

Data are a critical resource for government decisionmaking, and in recent years, local governments, in a bid for transparency, community engagement, and innovation, have released many municipal datasets on publicly accessible open data portals. Advocates, reporters, and others have voiced concerns about the bias of algorithms used to guide public decisions and the data that power them. Although significant progress is being made

March 5, 2019
Research Report