Nurse practitioners (NPs) are an increasingly integral part of the primary care workforce. NPs' authority to practice without physician oversight is regulated by state-level scope of practice (SOP) restrictions. To the extent that SOP restrictions prevent NPs from practicing to their full abilities and capacity, they could create inefficiencies and restrict access to health care. In this paper, I study what

October 8, 2021
Journal Article
 

Nonprofit organizations in the United States play a vital role delivering services, strengthening communities, and facilitating civic engagement. In our nationally representative survey of nonprofit organizations fielded January through April of 2021, we focus on operating 501(c)(3) public charities whose activities range from direct service provision to community building and advocacy. We provide new evidence

October 7, 2021
Research Report
 

In 2021, the American Rescue Plan Act temporarily expanded the federal child tax credit (CTC) for one year, including some families formerly ineligible for the credit. This could lift 59,000 children in Oklahoma out of poverty annually, cutting the state's 13 percent child poverty rate roughly in half (Acs and Werner 2021). The IRS sent payments automatically to people who had filed tax returns in either 2019 or

October 6, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

In the face of increased national attention to long-existent and worsening racialized gaps in health, wealth, and well-being, some philanthropic organizations are reexamining what and how they fund to create initiatives that advance equity through durable shifts in policy and practice. Funders and their grantees need to collaborate within a framework of mutual accountability that has explicit commitments:

October 5, 2021
Brief
 

This study uses the Urban Institute’s Dynamic Simulation of Income Model to project the share of Social Security beneficiaries whose retirement incomes fall below 75 percent of preretirement income, a common benchmark for a secure retirement. Absent significant Social Security reforms, we project the share of beneficiaries with inadequate retirement income will rise from 26 to 45 percent between 2020 and 2090.

October 4, 2021
Research Report
 

A public option and a strategy of capping payments made to health care providers by commercial insurers are two health reform approaches that are related; both seek to provide insurance options to consumers that would pay providers based upon payments determined (in the case of the public option) or limited (in the case of capped provider prices) by the federal government or its chosen agent. The public option

September 30, 2021
Brief
 

This technical white paper provides an overview of the privacy-preserving validation server prototype from project, researcher, and technical perspectives. In the first section, we discuss the purpose of the project, our process for building the prototype, key concepts, and how we envision a researcher might use the tool. In the second section, we provide detail on how this system could be adopted by other

September 30, 2021
Technical Paper
 

The expansion to the child tax credit (CTC) enacted through the American Rescue Plan Act could significantly change the landscape of child poverty. As policymakers and other stakeholders debate the future of the expanded CTC, the voices and perspectives of families with children should be front and center in the public dialogue. To learn more about families receiving the CTC and the early impact of the advance

September 29, 2021
Brief
 

The September edition of At a Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing household equity levels,  refinance shares, and second home purchase activity.

September 28, 2021
Research Report
 

In this fact sheet, we use data from the Urban Institute’s Health Reform Monitoring Survey to assess knowledge gaps about Marketplace coverage among nonelderly uninsured adults in April 2021, finding that fewer than half reported having heard a lot or some about the Marketplaces and fewer than a third reported having heard a lot or some about subsidies that make Marketplace coverage and care more affordable.

September 28, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

Only 24 percent of households living in Newark, New Jersey, own their home. While efforts to boost homeownership within the city are critical, ensuring that current owners do not lose their homes is also important. However, foreclosure risk may be heightened in Newark due to the interaction of racial inequities with the COVID-19 recession. To test this hypothesis, we constructed a standard regression model to

September 28, 2021
Research Report
 

This chartbook provides a comprehensive overview of racial disparities in homeownership in the Detroit MSA by analyzing household socioeconomic characteristics, mortgage and credit, home prices, and housing supply in Detroit that are all related to the lower Black homeownership rate and housing wealth in the region. It aims to help local decisionmakers identify and evaluate solutions to racial housing wealth

September 28, 2021
Research Report
 

Federal policymakers’ ability to effectively increase access to affordable rental housing is handicapped by the long-standing practice of assessing affordability based on housing costs relative to the area median income and then “managing” housing costs to the share of total household income that “should” be spent on housing, producing a definition of affordable rental housing that limits costs to 30 percent of

September 28, 2021
Brief
 

New Jersey’s state grant program delivers the highest level of need-based aid per student in the country. And the state’s major grant program, the Tuition Aid Grant (TAG), funds all eligible students, rather than excluding students when the funding runs out. But different levels of grant aid for enrollment in different institutions within sectors, combined with a confidential need analysis formula, make it

September 27, 2021
Brief
 

Texas state grant aid programs provide significant support to many low- and moderate-income state residents pursuing postsecondary education. But, because of limited funding, not all eligible students receive state grants, and students often cannot predict whether they will receive aid, especially if they apply to different types of institutions. Each of the three major state grant programs—the Toward EXcellence

September 27, 2021
Brief
 

Texas state grant aid programs provide significant support to many low- and moderate-income state residents pursuing postsecondary education. But, because of limited funding, not all eligible students receive state grants, and students often cannot predict whether they will receive aid, especially if they apply to different types of institutions. Each of the three major state grant programs—the Toward EXcellence

September 27, 2021
Brief
 

Texas state grant aid programs provide significant support to many low- and moderate-income state residents pursuing postsecondary education. But, because of limited funding, not all eligible students receive state grants, and students often cannot predict whether they will receive aid, especially if they apply to different types of institutions. Each of the three major state grant programs—the Toward EXcellence

September 27, 2021
Brief
 

Texas state grant aid programs provide significant support to many low- and moderate-income state residents pursuing postsecondary education. But, because of limited funding, not all eligible students receive state grants, and students often cannot predict whether they will receive aid, especially if they apply to different types of institutions. Each of the three major state grant programs—the Toward EXcellence

September 27, 2021
Brief
 

New Jersey’s state grant program delivers the highest level of need-based aid per student in the country. And the state’s major grant program, the Tuition Aid Grant (TAG), funds all eligible students, rather than excluding students when the funding runs out. But different levels of grant aid for enrollment in different institutions within sectors, combined with a confidential need analysis formula, make it

September 27, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

New Jersey’s state grant program delivers the highest level of need-based aid per student in the country. And the state’s major grant program, the Tuition Aid Grant (TAG), funds all eligible students, rather than excluding students when the funding runs out. But different levels of grant aid for enrollment in different institutions within sectors, combined with a confidential need analysis formula, make it

September 27, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

New Jersey’s state grant program delivers the highest level of need-based aid per student in the country. And the state’s major grant program, the Tuition Aid Grant (TAG), funds all eligible students, rather than excluding students when the funding runs out. But different levels of grant aid for enrollment in different institutions within sectors, combined with a confidential need analysis formula, make it

September 27, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

New Jersey’s state grant program delivers the highest level of need-based aid per student in the country. And the state’s major grant program, the Tuition Aid Grant (TAG), funds all eligible students, rather than excluding students when the funding runs out. But different levels of grant aid for enrollment in different institutions within sectors, combined with a confidential need analysis formula, make it

September 27, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

The Urban Institute, in partnership with John Jay College of Criminal Justice, is evaluating the FamilySafe Project. The project is administered by Sanctuary for Families and Rising Ground’s STEPS to End Family Violence program. The FamilySafe Project provides family-focused counseling and other services to survivors of gender-based violence and their children in New York City. The project and its evaluation are

September 24, 2021
Brief
 

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to adversely and disproportionately affect Black peoples’ financial well-being and health. Federal, state, and local eviction moratoriums can help mitigate racial disparities by supporting Black renters and other tenants of color. But landlords may not always comply with eviction moratoriums or may issue more informal threats of eviction—and renters are often unaware of their

September 23, 2021
Brief
 

For this study, we spoke with national maternal health leaders and stakeholders in four states in the spring of 2021 to understand how states assessed eligibility for other Medicaid pathways when pregnancy-related Medicaid coverage ended before the COVID-19 public health emergency (PHE), how the continuous enrollment requirement during the PHE changed postpartum coverage, and what steps could increase coverage

September 23, 2021
Research Report