About one-third of women who leave welfare are uninsured within six months of leaving; after a year, nearly half are uninsured Children do better. Nearly 20% are uninsured six months after their mothers leave welfare. This increases to nearly 30 percent after a year. This brief also examines health insurance coverage by employment status and income. The authors conclude that Medicaid eligibility and health insurance coverage among former welfare recipients is lower than expected due to complex eligibility rules, low take up rates for Medicaid, and low rates of employer-sponsored coverage.