The Urban Institute's HOPE VI Panel Study highlighted the health crisis hidden in distressed public housing developments in Chicago and in other communities across the nation. As a result of the HOPE VI research, one key goal of the Chicago Family Case Management Demonstration was to improve participants' mental and physical health. This brief reviews the findings from the Demonstration, considers possible explanations for differences from the Panel Study, and discusses the implications for policy and practice. Participants' health did not deteriorate over time, and their anxiety levels improved. Unfortunately, rates of chronic illness and mortality remain extremely high.