A skilled science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce is essential to innovation and economic growth. Many people view the STEM workforce narrowly, considering only scientists with doctorates or engineers with bachelor’s or master’s degrees. However, technicians and other STEM workers with sub-baccalaureate credentials make substantial contributions to the science and engineering enterprise. This report explores the delivery of sub-baccalaureate STEM education in the United States, including both college-based programs and registered apprenticeships. It discusses barriers to delivering high quality sub-baccalaureate STEM education and major federal investments in these education and training programs.