Policymakers and administrators in many federal agencies are increasingly interested in how they can best ensure the quality and value of federal programs and services. Congressional establishment of the Commission on Evidence-Based Policymaking was part of this growing interest. The bipartisan commission’s report, released in September 2017, included 22 recommendations for improving access to data, strengthening privacy protections, and improving agency evidence-building capacity. But there is no single process for accomplishing these goals. Every federal agency has its own experience with and resources for research, evaluation, and analysis; institutional culture regarding evidence; and staff analytical skills and capacity. This brief provides guidance to chief evaluation officers and others leading evidence capacity development within federal agencies on how agencies with different resources might structure and staff their supporting functions to build and use evidence.