Research highlights the generally poor outcomes for youth in foster care transitioning to adulthood while acknowledging that distinct subgroups of youth may fare better or worse than others. The diverse experiences and needs of youth in foster care suggest that we should consider how well services target these needs when developing and evaluating programs. This report introduces a conceptual framework of the transition to adulthood to help inform development and evaluation. The model takes into account maltreatment trauma and subsequent experiences in care that are unique to youth in foster care. It also highlights that youth in foster care, like other young people, approach the transition to adulthood with their own individual characteristics and experiences.