The economic impacts of COVID-19 have hit renters harder than homeowners due to their lower levels of income and wealth. Before the pandemic, rental payment data was not publicly available at a national scope; this information was kept internally by private property owners, management companies, and public housing agencies. Early in the pandemic, some private and public organizations stepped in to fill these data gaps. However, large gaps in coverage still exist as these data are not likely to be completely representative. Eviction data is even scarcer. These gaps make it very difficult for policymakers and researchers to estimate how much non-payment of rent already existed prior to the pandemic versus how much was “caused” by the pandemic. They also make it challenging for policymakers to determine the appropriate level and type of support to renters and landlords, or to assess how effective federal, state, and local interventions have been in preventing evictions. This brief examines the current status of the rental payment and eviction data, what we have learned from the existing datasets, and what data is needed moving forward.