Congress mandated in the Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999 (BBRA) that the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services conduct an independent comprehensive study of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). This report presents the findings from the mandated surveys of SCHIP enrollees and disenrollees in 10 states (conducted during 2002). SCHIP programs were found to provide health coverage to the population SCHIP was intended to serve, primarily children who would otherwise have been uninsured. The programs availed enrollees of needed primary and other health care services, and were found to have a positive impact on enrollees' access to health care services, leaving enrollees with fewer unmet needs than they would have had in the absence of SCHIP. Families were satisfied with the ease of enrolling children, many of whom remained enrolled for 12 months, depending on the state.