Federal agencies are increasingly using evaluation and analytics to better understand their programs, partially motivated by the 2019 Evidence Act requirement to boost evidence capacity. Evaluation and analytics are often used to learn and disseminate findings about which programs effectively advance progress and which do not. However, evidence, including that from data analytics and evaluations, can also improve public programs in many ways. This brief discusses how evaluation helps agencies detect problems and opportunities, set priorities, design treatments, assess programs and practices, and adapt processes for continual improvement. Additionally, it explores how performance measurement and management, data analytics, and program evaluation can and should complement one another in the work of improving federal programs.