This study provides an in-depth, systematic look at program implementation, operations, outputs, and outcomes in four diverse Tribal TANF programs, and identifies promising practices and areas for further study. Overall, the study found that tribes use the flexibility of Tribal TANF to create diverse programs that reflect their unique circumstances, opportunities, and cultures. Elements of tribal culture were evident in the way program staff and clients interacted and in the types of activities in which clients were engaged. The Tribal TANF programs examined in the study generally focus on the broad goal of self-sufficiency, beyond the narrower goal of employment.
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