One-half of all families receiving TANF cash assistance live in states with county-administered TANF programs. But what does “county-administered” mean? States do not report details about how counties administer TANF, but these details and their differences from state-administered programs, have implications for federal policies, regulations, and technical assistance. This report closely examines the TANF programs in four states with county-administered systems (California, Colorado, Minnesota, and North Dakota) and provides detailed information on TANF administration in selected counties in these states. The report also identifies differences between county- and state-administered TANF programs and describes the technical assistance needs of county-administered programs.