Justice Reinvestment Initiative: Sources and Notes

Updated April 2019

 

Georgia

Georgia’s introduction, key accomplishments, and lasting impact narrative are drawn from the following six reports: The Pew Charitable Trusts’ 2012 Georgia Public Safety Reform: Legislation to Reduce Recidivism and Cut Corrections Costs (2012); The Council of State Governments Justice Center’s Georgia’s Justice Reinvestment Approach: Strengthening Probation and Increasing Public Safety (2017) and Reducing Recidivism: States Deliver Results (2017); Georgia’s 2018 Report of the Georgia Council on Criminal Justice Reform (February 2018); the Carl Vinson Institute of Government at the University of Georgia’s Council of Accountability Court Judges: Processes and Outcomes (2018); and the Urban Institute’s Assessing the Impact of Georgia’s Sentencing Reforms: Justice Reinvestment Initiative (2017). The Georgia Office of Planning and Budget reported total savings to the Urban Institute on September 9, 2016, and stakeholders in Georgia reported an updated reinvestment total on March 15, 2019. Data on crime rates are from the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program (2007–17) and recidivism data are from Georgia Department of Corrections 3-Year Felony Reconviction Rates for Calendar Years CY 2005 to CY 2015 (January 2019). Prison population counts and prison composition percentages are from the Georgia Department of Corrections’ “Profiles of All Inmates” and prison population numbers reflect the count on July 1 of each year. Applied Research Services calculated the baseline prison population projection (not available online).

North Carolina

North Carolina’s introduction, key accomplishments, and lasting impact narrative are drawn from the following five reports: The Council of State Governments Justice Center’s Justice Reinvestment in North Carolina: Analysis and Policy Framework to Reduce Spending on Corrections and Reinvest in Strategies to Increase Public Safety (April 2011) and Justice Reinvestment in North Carolina: Three Years Later (November 2014); the North Carolina Sentencing and Policy Advisory Commission’s Justice Reinvestment Act Implementation Evaluation Report (April 2018); the North Carolina Department of Public Safety’s Justice Reinvestment Performance Measures: North Carolina Fiscal Year 2015-2016 (March 2017; not available online); and the North Carolina Sheriffs’ Association’s Statewide Misdemeanant Confinement Program Annual Report Fiscal Year 2017–18 (October 2018; not available online). Savings and reinvestment totals are from the Justice Reinvestment Act Implementation Evaluation Report (April 2018). Data on crime rates are from the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program (2007–17). Recidivism data are from the North Carolina Sentencing and Policy Advisory Commission’s Adult Recidivism/Correctional Program Evaluation Reports (2009; 2010–11; 2012–13; 2014–15). Prison population counts and prison composition percentages are from the North Carolina Department of Public Safety’s Annual Statistical Reports and prison population numbers reflect the count on June 30 of each year. The baseline prison population projection is from the North Carolina Sentencing and Policy Advisory Commission’s Current Population Projections Fiscal Year 2010/11 to Fiscal Year 2019/20.

South Dakota

South Dakota’s introduction, key accomplishments, and lasting impact narrative are drawn from the following four reports: the South Dakota Criminal Justice Initiative Work Group’s Final Report (November 2012); the Public Safety Improvement Act Oversight Council’s Public Safety Improvement Act 2018 Annual Report (December 2018); the Pew Charitable Trusts’ South Dakota’s 2013 Criminal Justice Initiative: Legislation to Improve Public Safety, Hold Offenders More Accountable, and Reduce Corrections Spending (June 2013); and the Vera Institute of Justice’s Bridging the Divide: Improving Parole Outcomes for Native Americans in South Dakota (October 2016). Savings and reinvestment totals are from the  Public Safety Improvement Act 2018 Annual Report (December 2018). Data on crime rates are from the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program (2007–17) and recidivism data for releases in 2009–13 are from the Council of State Governments’ 50-State Data on Public Safety South Dakota Workbook (March 2018). The South Dakota Department of Corrections reported the recidivism rate for people released from prison in 2014 to Urban in March 2019. South Dakota’s prison population counts are fiscal year–end counts from the South Dakota Public Safety Improvement Act Annual Reports. The Pew Charitable Trusts calculated the baseline prison population projection (not available online). Prison composition data are from the South Dakota Public Safety Improvement Act Annual Reports.