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Virginia’s budget basics
According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), Virginia’s total expenditures in fiscal year (FY) 2020 were $64.2 billion, including general funds, other state funds, bonds, and federal funds. NASBO reported that total expenditures across all states in FY 2020 were $2.3 trillion, ranging from $4.7 billion in Wyoming to $337.7 billion in California.
Each state allocates spending and taxes differently among different levels of governments, and local governments often administer programs with state funds, so combined state and local government data show a more complete picture of individual benefits and contributions when comparing states.
Per the US Census Bureau, Virginia’s combined state and local direct general expenditures were $76.1 billion in FY 2018 (the most recent year census data were available), or $8,955 per capita. (Census data exclude “business-like” activities such as utilities and transfers between state and local governments.) National per capita direct general expenditures were $9,801.
Virginia’s largest spending areas per capita were elementary and secondary education ($2,076) and public welfare ($1,481). The Census Bureau includes most Medicaid spending in public welfare but also allocates some of it to public hospitals. Per capita spending is useful for state comparisons but is an incomplete metric because it doesn’t provide any information about a state’s demographics, policy decisions, administrative procedures, or residents’ choices.
Virginia’s combined state and local general revenues were $77.6 billion in FY 2018, or $9,126 per capita. National per capita general revenues were $10,071. Virginia uses all major state and local taxes. Virginia’s largest sources of per capita revenue were charges ($2,014), such as state university tuition and highway tolls, and property taxes ($1,699).
Governor Ralph Northam, a Democrat, was elected in 2017 with 54 percent of the vote. The next gubernatorial election is in 2021. Virginia is the only state that does not let a sitting governor run for reelection. A governor can run for a non-consecutive second term, though.
Democrats control both the House of Delegates (53 Democrats to 45 Republicans) and Senate (21 Democrats to 19 Republicans). Control of the governor’s mansion and each house of the legislature gives Democrats a trifecta in Virginia. All Virginia House seats are on the ballot in 2021 because delegates serve two-year terms. Senators serve four-year terms, and their seats are on the ballot in 2023.
Virginia’s budget institutions, rules, and constraints
Virginia uses a biennial budget. The legislature is not required to pass a balanced budget, the governor is not required to sign one, and deficits may be carried over into the following year. However, the state has budget rules that require lawmakers to balance revenues and expenditures. Virginia does not have any tax and expenditure limits. The state does limit total authorized debt and debt service incurred by the state.
(Note: Some states have informal budget institutions that constrain overall spending growth or a specific expenditure’s growth.)
Virginia’s recent fiscal debates
- Virginia accepted funds for expanding Medicaid eligibility created by the Affordable Care Act in May 2018. Before the legislation passed, the Urban Institute estimated that accepting Medicaid expansion would increase the state’s federal Medicaid funds 30.8 percent ($2.1 billion) and increase its state spending on Medicaid 4.6 percent ($193 million). Urban estimated that savings from Medicaid expansion (e.g., lower spending on uncompensated care) would, like with other states, fully or largely offset Virginia’s direct state spending increases. The original deal between Governor Northam and the legislature on Medicaid expansion included work requirements for newly eligible enrollees, but Governor Northam said Virginia would drop the rules after Democrats won control of the legislature in 2019. Further, courts have blocked other states from pursuing work requirements.
- In 2018, Virginia dedicated $158 million in funding for the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (Metro). Most of the funds were diverted from other projects rather than raised through new taxes. The legislation was part of a joint effort with the District of Columbia and Maryland to improve the Washington, DC, region’s public transit system with dedicated funding for capital improvements. At the end of 2019, Governor Northam proposed increasing the state’s gas tax rate by 4 cents a gallon and indexing the rate to inflation going forward. He requested the new revenues to help pay for the state’s long list of other transportation needs.
Virginia’s current budget
Governor Northam released his FY 2021–2022 biennial budget proposal in December 2019. Over the two-year period, the governor proposed $48.2 billion in general fund spending and $135.1 billion in total spending. His proposal included a 3 percent pay raise for teachers and a plan for tuition-free community college for low- and middle-income students.
Virginia enacted its FY 2021–2022 biennial budget in May 2020. The legislature generally followed the governor’s recommendations, allocating $48.2 billion for general fund spending and $135.8 billion in total fund spending during the biennium. The enacted budget included a 2 percent salary increase for teachers and more funds for community college (if not the governor’s full, tuition-free plan). However, Governor Northam soon thereafter proposed 144 amendments to the budget in response to the pandemic. These amendments froze $875 million in proposed spending for FY 2021 and $1.4 billion for FY 2022. The governor and legislature ultimately agreed to postpone teacher salary raises, community college support, and delay implementation of a recently passed increase to the state’s minimum wage. The legislature reconvened again in the summer and fall, and the state ultimately enacted a revised budget in November 2020. The budget closed the deficit by eliminating hundreds of millions of dollars in spending and by using significant federal funds from the CARES Act.
Governor Northam released his FY 2021-2022 biennial budget adjustment proposal in December 2020 and gave his State of the State address in January 2021. Governor Northam’s adjustments would restore roughly half of the spending that was frozen in calendar year 2020. The budget did not include any tax increases, but the governor does support legalizing and taxing marijuana sales.
For more on Virginia’s budget, see
Virginia’s economic trends
Virginia’s per capita income (per the Bureau of Economic Analysis) was $62,362 in 2020, ranking 13th among the states. It was above both the national average of $59,729 and the Southeast regional average of $51,796. The state’s median household income (five-year estimate) was $74,222 in 2019, ranking ninth among the states and above the national average of $62,843. Virginia’s poverty rate was 10.6 percent in 2019 (five-year estimate), below the national rate of 13.4 percent.
Although Virginia’s averages tell a story about the entire state, Virginia is composed of diverse localities. For example, the city of Danville’s median household income was $37,203, and its poverty rate was 22.4 percent; the city of Fairfax’s median household income was $116,979, and its poverty rate was 9.3 percent.
Virginia’s unemployment rate has historically been below the national average. (See how COVID-19 is affecting state employment and earnings data.)
Unemployment rates (like other economic indicators) often vary significantly by race and ethnicity. In Virginia, the average unemployment rate in 2020 was 5.2 percent for white residents, 9.2 percent for Black residents, and 9.4 percent for Latino residents.