Michigan’s budget basics
According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), Michigan’s total expenditures in fiscal year (FY) 2019 were $57.2 billion, including general funds, other state funds, bonds, and federal funds. NASBO reported that total expenditures across all states in FY 2019 were $2.1 trillion, ranging from $4.5 billion in South Dakota to $311.3 billion in California.
Each state allocates spending and taxes differently among different levels of governments, and local governments often administer programs with state funds, so combined state and local government data show a more complete picture of individual benefits and contributions when comparing states.
Per the US Census Bureau, Michigan’s combined state and local direct general expenditures were $85.1 billion in FY 2017 (the most recent year census data were available), or $8,528 per capita. (Census data exclude “business-like” activities such as utilities and transfers between state and local governments.) National per capita direct general expenditures were $9,446.
Michigan’s largest spending areas per capita were elementary and secondary education ($1,748) and public welfare ($1,713). The Census Bureau includes most Medicaid spending in public welfare but also allocates some of it to public hospitals. Per capita spending is useful for state comparisons but is an incomplete metric because it doesn’t provide any information about a state’s demographics, policy decisions, administrative procedures, or residents’ choices.
Michigan’s combined state and local general revenues were $88.6 billion in FY 2017, or $8,878 per capita. National per capita general revenues were $9,592. Michigan uses all major state and local taxes. After federal transfers, Michigan’s largest sources of per capita revenue were charges ($1,742), such as state university tuition and highway tolls, and property taxes ($1,410).
Governor Gretchen Whitmer, a Democrat, was elected in 2018 with 53 percent of the vote. The next gubernatorial election is in 2022.
Michigan has a divided government. Republicans control both the House of Representatives (58 Republicans to 51 Democrats) and Senate (22 Republicans to 16 Democrats). All Michigan House seats are on the ballot in 2020 because representatives serve two-year terms. Senators serve four-year terms, and their seats are on the ballot in 2022.
Michigan’s budget institutions, rules, and constraints
(Note: Some states have informal budget institutions that constrain overall spending growth or a specific expenditure’s growth.)
Michigan’s recent fiscal debates
- Governor Whitmer’s 2018 campaign centered on her pledge to “fix the damn roads.” Whitmer’s predecessor, Governor Rick Snyder, called the state’s roads and bridges “rotten” and enacted a modest gas tax rate increase in 2015 after voters rejected his far more ambitious tax changes. Whitmer’s plan hikes the state’s gas tax rate from roughly 26 cents to 71 cents per gallon in one year and spends the resulting $2 billion on a range of transportation projects. The Republican-controlled legislature did not go along with the governor’s proposed tax increase in 2019, and both sides agreed to table the transportation funding debate until next year.
- When the legislature did not adopt her proposed gas-tax increase, Governor Whitmer began pursuing another funding option: levying a progressive income tax in Michigan. Currently, Michigan has a flat 4.25 percent individual income tax rate. The change would come from a not-yet-introduced ballot amendment. However, two bills introduced (but not passed) in 2019 show what the amendment might look like. HB 4481 would create a graduated income tax rate structure, with a bottom rate of 4 percent on the first $5,000 of taxable income and a top rate of 8.4 percent on taxable income above $75,000. HB 4482 would increase the state’s personal exemption from $4,050 to $5,000 and phase out the exemption for higher earners. The plan would raise an estimated $2.5 billion, roughly what the governor proposes in new transportation spending.
- In the November 2018, Michigan voters approved Proposal 1, which legalized recreational marijuana and levied a 10 percent tax on retail sales. The state’s 6 percent general sales tax will also apply to sales. The state estimated that in the first full year of implementation, Michigan will collect $81 million in excise tax revenue and $49 million in sales tax revenue from marijuana sales. In December 2019, Michigan became the eighth state to begin collecting marijuana tax revenue.
Michigan’s current budget
Governor Whitmer released her proposed FY 2020 budget in March 2019. The budget included her transportation funding plan and a $100 million proposal to make community college free for all Michigan students. Whitmer also proposed doubling the state’s 6 percent earned income tax credit match and reinstating retirement income tax exemptions that were eliminated in 2011 legislation.
The Michigan legislature passed its budget in September 2019. It did not include the governor’s plans for transportation funding, community college, or major tax proposals. In fact, the budget that the legislature approved differed so much from the governor’s priorities that she issued nearly $1 billion in line-item vetoes and shifted more than $600 million within state agencies.
For more on Michigan’s budget, see
Michigan’s economic trends
Michigan’s per capita income (per the Bureau of Economic Analysis) was $50,320 in 2019, ranking 32nd among the states. It was below both the national average of $56,663 and the Great Lakes regional average of $52,870. The state’s median household income (five-year estimate) was $54,938 in 2018, ranking 33rd among the states and below the national average of $60,293. Michigan’s poverty rate was 15 percent in 2018 (five-year estimate), above the national rate of 14.1 percent.
Although Michigan’s averages tell a story about the entire state, Michigan is composed of diverse localities. For example, the city of Hamtramck’s median household income was $25,478, and its poverty rate was 49.1 percent; the city of Birmingham’s median household income was $117,670, and its poverty rate was 5.2 percent.
Michigan’s unemployment rate has historically been above the national average, particularly following the Great Recession, but in recent years has more closely paralleled the US rate. (See how COVID-19 is affecting state employment and earnings data.)