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Arizona’s budget basics
According to the National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), Arizona’s total expenditures in fiscal year (FY) 2020 were $40.8 billion, including general funds, other state funds, bonds, and federal funds. NASBO reported that total expenditures across all states in FY 2020 were $2.3 trillion, ranging from $4.7 billion in Wyoming to $337.7 billion in California.
Each state allocates spending and taxes differently among different levels of governments, and local governments often administer programs with state funds, so combined state and local government data show a more complete picture of individual benefits and contributions when comparing states.
Per the US Census Bureau, Arizona’s combined state and local direct general expenditures were $50.0 billion in FY 2018 (the most recent year census data were available), or $6,983 per capita. (Census data exclude “business-like” activities such as utilities and transfers between state and local governments.) National per capita direct general expenditures were $9,801.
Arizona’s largest spending areas per capita were public welfare ($2,126) and elementary and secondary education ($1,191). The Census Bureau includes most Medicaid spending in public welfare but also allocates some of it to public hospitals. Per capita spending is useful for state comparisons but is an incomplete metric because it doesn’t provide any information about a state’s demographics, policy decisions, administrative procedures, or residents’ choices.
Arizona’s combined state and local general revenues were $54.8 billion in FY 2018, or $7,662 per capita. National per capita general revenues were $10,071. Arizona uses all major state and local taxes. After federal transfers, Arizona’s largest sources of per capita revenue were general sales taxes ($1,549) and property taxes ($1,125).
Governor Doug Ducey, a Republican, was elected in 2018 with 56 percent of the vote. The next gubernatorial election is in 2022.
Republicans control both the House of Representatives (31 Republicans to 29 Democrats) and Senate (16 Republicans to 14 Democrats). Control of the governor’s mansion and each house of the legislature gives Republicans a trifecta in Arizona. The entire legislature is up for election in 2022 because both representatives and senators serve two-year terms.
Arizona’s budget institutions, rules, and constraints
Arizona uses an annual budget. The legislature must pass a balanced budget, but it can carry a deficit into the following year. Arizona limits spending growth based on personal income growth with a binding rule that requires a legislative supermajority or a vote of the people to override it. A supermajority is similarly required for any legislation that increases taxes or revenues. Arizona also places limits on the total authorized debt the state can incur but not on debt service.
(Note: Some states have informal budget institutions that constrain overall spending growth or a specific expenditure’s growth.)
Arizona’s recent fiscal debates
- In spring 2018, Arizona teachers walked out of their classrooms and protested state cuts to education spending. The governor and legislature responded by increasing education spending (including a 20 percent increase in teacher pay) by hundreds of millions of dollars in the FY 2019 budget and planned additional increases for future budget years. However, some education advocates remain concerned that no new revenue source was provided for the increased spending and that the state’s per pupil education funding remains below its pre–Great Recession level. As such, advocates introduced a 2018 ballot measure that, if it had passed, would have increased individual income tax rates on high earners to pay for more education spending and raised nearly $700 million annually for education spending. However, the Arizona Supreme Court blocked the ballot initiative, citing misleading wording. Governor Ducey’s FY 2020 budget continued with the scheduled spending increases, but education funding remains a contentious policy and political issue in Arizona.
- All states with an income tax link to the federal tax code to some degree. As such, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act also affected state taxes across the country. Arizona’s code was mostly unaffected, but it had one distinct conformity issue: The state’s Department of Revenue sent out tax year 2018 forms that conformed with the federal changes before the legislature passed a law requiring the state to adopt (or reject) the federal changes. Both the Republican governor and the Republican-controlled legislature wanted to fold the federal tax changes into Arizona’s code. However, the governor wanted to send the resulting tax revenue increase to the state’s rainy-day fund, while most Republican legislators wanted to use it for a state tax cut. This disagreement left taxpayers possibly filing incorrect state tax forms and receiving incorrect tax refunds or bills. However, the two sides eventually agreed on a bill (HB 2757) that conformed to the federal tax changes as the forms anticipated, so filers did not need to send amended returns to the state. The legislation sent the resulting revenue from tax year 2018 to the rainy-day fund but also cut state taxes in tax year 2019 by lowering rates and increasing the state’s standard deductions to the federal levels. The state estimates the legislation will increase revenue by $155 million in FY 2019, reduce revenue by $52 million in FY 2020, and reduce revenue by $24 million each year after.
- All states are struggling to modernize their general sales tax as consumers increasingly purchase services instead of tangible goods. The general sales tax was originally designed for goods (because most state sales taxes were designed in the 1930s), and making new transactions taxable is often technically complicated and politically challenging. However, after Arizona voters overwhelmingly approved Proposition 126 in 2018, the task is now impossible in Arizona. The ballot measure constitutionally prohibits the state from adding new services to its sales tax base or increasing rates on currently taxable services. As consumers continue to purchase more untaxed services, this could force the state to raise the sales tax rate on goods or increase other taxes to maintain tax revenue.
Arizona’s current budget
Governor Ducey released his proposed FY 2021 budget in January 2020. His proposal included $12.3 billion in general fund spending and $46.2 billion in total spending, including the final installation of a previously promised, multi-year, 20 percent increase in teacher pay.
Arizona enacted its FY 2021 budget in July 2020. . The approved general fund spending of $11.8 billion was 1.9 percent lower than FY 2020 spending, and roughly $500 million lower than what the governor proposed before the pandemic. However, the budget did include $175 million for the planned teacher pay increases. Enacted total fund spending was $45.2 billion.
Governor Ducey released his proposed FY 2022 budget and gave his State of the State Address in January 2021. In his speech, the governor called for lower taxes, but otherwise did not discuss how the pandemic affected his budget plan. Governor Ducey also proposed $200 million in income tax cuts for FY 2022 and $1 billion in additional cuts over the next two fiscal years. The governor’s proposal, which totaled $12.6 billion in general fund spending, relied heavily on federal funds in the CARES Act—particularly for K-12 education—to balance the budget.
For more on Arizona’s budget, see
Arizona’s economic trends
Arizona’s per capita income (per the Bureau of Economic Analysis) was $48,950 in 2020, ranking 42nd among the states. It was below both the national average of $59,729 and the Southwest regional average of $52,858. The state’s median household income (five-year estimate) was $58,945 in 2019, ranking 29th among the states and below the national average of $62,843. Arizona’s poverty rate was 15.1 percent in 2019 (five-year estimate), above the national rate of 13.4 percent.
Although Arizona’s averages tell a story about the entire state, Arizona is composed of diverse localities. For example, the city of Nogales’s median household income was $29,339, and its poverty rate was 29.7 percent; the city of Queen Creek’s median household income was $105,729, and its poverty rate was 4.7 percent.
Arizona’s unemployment rate historically tracks the national average, but in recent years it has been among the highest in the country. (See how COVID-19 is affecting state employment and earnings data.)
Unemployment rates (like other economic indicators) often vary significantly by race and ethnicity. In Arizona, the average unemployment rate in 2020 was 7.2 percent for white residents, 7.4 percent for Black residents, and 8.4 percent for Latino residents.