Between 1997 and 1999, the share of families composed of a single mother living independently declined. At the same time, the share of families composed of cohabiting couples with children rose. In addition, changes in living arrangements are more pronounced among population sub-groups that are more likely to be affected by welfare policies lower income and less educated families. This suggests that welfare policies may have contributed to the decline in single parenting and rise in cohabitation between 1997 and 1999. This brief is based on data from the 1997 and 1999 rounds of the National Survey of America's Families.