This report examines the economic and distributional effects of changes made to retirement tax incentives by the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA). We augment the Tax Policy Center microsimulation tax model with information about saving from the Survey of Consumer Finances. Based on that model, we estimate that although EGTRRA provided some additional tax benefits for middle-income households, the benefits were skewed in favor of those with high incomes, and there were no benefits for those with low incomes. Better targeted policy options exist. We also estimate that when the effect on the deficit is considered, the policies are likely to reduce national saving by as much as 1 percent of GDP.