While the nation's housing and mortgage markets aren’t causing the broader economic disruption in this crisis, as they did in the last, they are suffering from its effects. The authors discuss how these markets are straining under the weight of the disruption, what policymakers should do about it and what longer term implications we should draw from the experience.

May 14, 2020
Brief
 

Consistent with national trends, youth incarceration in Ohio has declined significantly during the past decade. Notably, however, the average daily population in the state’s youth prisons actually increased each year between 2016 and 2019. Reductions in youth incarceration allowed the Ohio Department of Youth Services (DYS) to close five of its eight juvenile correctional facilities over the last decade, yet

May 13, 2020
Brief
 

Strong community-police relationships are essential to public safety, and these relationships influence how communities engage with the police. We created a typology based on multiple aspects of policing that reveals a relationship between resident-initiated and police-initiated activity, and explores how that relationship varies across neighborhoods. We found that resident calls for service and police stops

May 12, 2020
Research Report
 

In the report Catalyzing Police Reform with Data: Policing Typology for Los Angeles Neighborhoods, we created a typology that elucidates the relationship between resident-initiated and police-initiated activity in the City of Los Angeles, as well as explore how that relationship varies across neighborhoods, by synthesizing data sources on calls for service, stops, arrests, and crime. The open data come from the

May 12, 2020
Technical Paper
 

This report investigates home price appreciation in three tiers (low, moderate and high price) from 2000 to 2019, nationally and in 285 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in an attempt to identify which factors influence the different appreciation rates. We find that, nationally, from January 2000 to December 2019, prices for the lower-priced homes increased 126.2 percent, compared to 99.8 percent for medium

May 12, 2020
Research Report
 

This article describes how a university and public child welfare agency partnership and a federal demonstration project trained MSW and PhD social welfare students in homelessness intervention research using a continuous quality improvement approach. Over a period of 5 years, the Cal-Child Welfare Leadership Training model between University of California, Berkeley’s School of Social Welfare and San Francisco’s

May 12, 2020
Journal Article
 

Federal tax law provides substantial tax incentives for retirement saving. These include the deferral of taxes on contributions to retirement savings accounts by employers, employees, and self-employed taxpayers and the earnings on these contributions until the funds are withdrawn in retirement for traditional retirement accounts; the exemption of investment income accrued within retirement accounts for Roth

May 11, 2020
Brief
 

In this report, we compare revenue equivalent alternatives to the $10,000 annual limit on the state and local tax (SALT) deduction enacted in the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA). We consider options that would limit all itemized deductions, not just the SALT deduction, and an additional option that would raise the four highest federal individual income tax rates. Prior work has shown that higher-income

May 7, 2020
Research Report
 

In October 2019, the Urban Institute and the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities launched the Future of Public Housing Initiative. The initiative kicked off with a convening of practitioners, policymakers, and public housing resident leaders—the latter a group often excluded from policy discussions. Attendees shared viewpoints on the state of public housing, including challenges and priority areas for change

May 7, 2020
Brief
 

The coronavirus pandemic threatens the financial stability of Connecticut’s pension plan for state employees, one of the nation’s worst-funded retirement plans. This strain could lead to benefit cuts, but recent plan changes have already reduced future pensions and raised mandatory employee contributions. Many state employees hired today will receive only half as much from the retirement system as they would

May 7, 2020
Research Report
 

In this Kids’ Share brief, we examine how the Trump administration’s proposed 2021 budget would affect spending on children. Children’s programs subject to annual funding decisions, including education and early care and education, would be sharply reduced. Mandatory programs and tax credits for children for the most part would be largely protected, following a pattern seen throughout the budget

May 7, 2020
Brief
 

On March 30, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) released its analysis of President Trump’s proposed budget for fiscal year 2021. The president submitted this budget on February 10, 2020, when the pandemic was in its early stages in the US and before the enactment of major relief bills in response to the public health crisis and ongoing recession. CBO estimated that from 2021 to 2030, the federal deficit

May 7, 2020
Brief
 

The COVID-19 pandemic threatens to upend the well-being of many Hispanic adults and their families. Employment and earnings losses related to the pandemic are likely to impose an especially high toll on Hispanic adults who are noncitizens or live with noncitizen family members, many of whom are barred from federal relief efforts and existing safety net programs or have been discouraged from applying for

May 6, 2020
Research Report
 

Although Connecticut’s youth detention rates have declined significantly in the past decade, the state incarcerates an increasing proportion and disproportionate number of youth of color. In 2019, 84 percent of youth admitted to detention were youth of color, even though only about 33 percent of the state’s youth population were youth of color. In 2018, the governor closed the Connecticut Juvenile Training

May 6, 2020
Brief
 

Thirty million workers filed initial unemployment claims between March 15 and April 25. As workers lose their jobs, many will also lose their employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI), as will their dependents. Some of these workers and dependents will qualify for Medicaid coverage, particularly in states that expanded Medicaid eligibility under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Others will purchase individual

May 4, 2020
Research Report
 

Data and digital technology are crucial for nonprofit work. They can drive innovation, improve operational efficiency, and increase mission impact. But greater adoption requires investment, capacity building, and an impact-driven case. This article responds to data from the second edition of Salesforce’s Nonprofit Trends Report where participants report the difficulties in measuring and reporting impact. Using

May 1, 2020
Journal Article
 

Paid medical leave is a benefit that allows individuals to take time off from their jobs while continuing to receive their wages and salaries to address their own serious medical condition that limits their ability to work. The term “medical leave” generally refers to leave that lasts weeks or months. Research suggests that paid medical leave could affect economic outcomes by reducing income volatility,

April 30, 2020
Research Report
 

Economic and demographic data drive research, policy development, distribution of government resources, and private investment. But many of the datasets that policymakers, practitioners, and researchers rely on to understand and guide resources to rural communities fall short in representing rural realities. Informed by a review of 22 datasets and discussions with top rural-focused researchers, economic

April 30, 2020
Research Report
 

Staff, teachers, and students experienced rapid change as school buildings closed in March 2020 because of the spread of the novel coronavirus, COVID-19. In this brief, we use American Community Survey (ACS) data to highlight different types of challenges to remote learning and point to district and educator strategies that might mitigate harm to students as districts navigate long-term school closures.

April 29, 2020
Research Report
 

Like many states, Maine has seen a significant decline in youth incarceration over the past 10 years. In 2019, about 40 youth were incarcerated at Long Creek Youth Development Center, the state’s only detention center and youth prison. Despite reductions in youth incarceration, spending on the facility has increased and racial disparities have worsened. Many youth who are committed have behavioral health needs

April 29, 2020
Brief
 

Youth incarceration in Kansas has changed significantly in the past several years. Following comprehensive reform legislation passed in 2016, youth incarceration fell 24 percent, allowing the state to close one of its two youth prisons and invest resulting savings in community-based alternatives for youth. On an average day in 2019, Kansas incarcerated about 300 youth in juvenile correctional facilities and

April 28, 2020
Brief
 

As it confronts the COVID-19 pandemic, the US faces what could be its worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. A successful government response to the economic consequences of the pandemic is critical for sustaining families’ health and well-being and allowing families to remain housed as major sectors of the economy remain closed. The success of this response will partly depend on its effectiveness in

April 28, 2020
Brief
 

This analysis estimates the extent to which workers in industries most vulnerable to pandemic-related unemployment and their family members would be eligible for Medicaid, the Children’s Health Insurance Program, or marketplace subsidies if workers lose their jobs. Absent recent data on unemployment increases by industry, we chose industries for our analysis that appear most affected by shutdowns of

April 24, 2020
Brief
 

The COVID-19 pandemic is causing considerable stress on state budgets because of both increasing expenditures and declining revenues. Unlike the federal government, states cannot incur deficits. In this paper, we estimate the fiscal impacts of several approaches for increasing federal Medicaid matching rates, providing state-level estimates for each approach.   This brief was corrected April 24, 2020. In

April 23, 2020
Brief
 

Strategies and Challenges in Feeding Out-of-School Students In response to school closures because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the nation’s school nutrition programs have transformed into emergency community feeding systems, delivering meals to out-of-school students, their families, and in many districts, other members of the community. Because the crisis is expected to continue and the sustainability of many

April 21, 2020
Brief