The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) projects the Hospital Insurance (HI) Trust Fund, which pays for hospital and most institutional services under Medicare Part A, will be depleted in 2027. If this occurs, full payments to providers for services covered under Part A would be delayed, which could ultimately harm the level of care patients receive. From 2022 to 2031, HI Trust Fund revenues are projected to fall

August 27, 2021
Brief
 

Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are a contracting model that can help governments leverage the financial and technical capabilities of private sector partners to address urgent service and infrastructure needs, including health and health-affecting services such as water and sanitation. This brief provides guidance for local leaders exploring potential PPP projects for urban health and reviews the PPP

August 26, 2021
Brief
 

The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program provides critical financial support to people with low income and few assets, including children and working-age adults with severe disabilities as well as adults ages 65 and older. In 2019, about 2.4 percent of people in the United States received SSI, up from about 1.6 percent in 1974. This brief describes how the program works, and the demographic and economic

August 26, 2021
Research Report
 

Public transportation offers residents of cities, towns, and villages throughout the United States access to jobs, schools, and other essential resources at an affordable cost and with low impacts on the environment. In this report, I examine the current allocation of public funds for transit operations—the money required to pay for the energy and labor needed to run services. I find that higher-income towns and

August 26, 2021
Research Report
 

The Census Bureau greatly delayed the release of 2020 census data products because of the COVID-19 pandemic and related stay-at-home orders. The 2020 Census was also affected by natural disasters, new household dynamics, eviction freezes, displacement of college students, and national social upheaval. Further, the Census Bureau implemented for the first time a new privacy definition, called differential privacy

August 25, 2021
Research Report
 

Over the past 30 years, women have made tremendous gains in closing both the income and the education gaps between them and men, and growth in their homeownership rates has become an important manifestation of these trends. In this report, we examine homeownership by the gender of the household head and how it has narrowed over the past three decades. This narrowing can be attributed mostly to gains in household

August 25, 2021
Research Report
 

During the COVID-19 pandemic, philanthropic entities across the US embraced giving directly—transferring cash to people—as an effective and efficient means of providing relief to those hit hard by the sudden economic and health emergency. Since the onset of the pandemic and in partnership with donors, nonprofit organizations, and local government agencies, the Greater Washington Community Foundation has

August 24, 2021
Research Report
 

Rapid job losses in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic raised fears that millions of people would lose their employer-based health insurance and become uninsured. But laid-off workers and their families, regardless of whether they previously had employer-sponsored insurance (ESI), had more options for health insurance than in previous recessions because of the safety net established by the Affordable Care

August 18, 2021
Brief
 

Many adults have gone without needed health care during the COVID-19 pandemic over concerns about being exposed to the novel coronavirus in hospitals, doctor’s and dentist’s offices, and other health care settings. Data from the Urban Institute’s April 2021 Health Reform Monitoring Survey show that 1 in 4 nonelderly adults (24.9 percent) reported delaying or forgoing care for this reason in the past 12 months.

August 18, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

Though children face a lower risk of getting severely ill from COVID-19 than adults, many families have avoided getting health care for their children during the pandemic for fear that their children could be exposed to the coronavirus. Data from the Urban Institute’s April 2021 Health Reform Monitoring Survey indicate parents’ worries about exposure to the virus continued affecting children’s receipt of care in

August 18, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

Throughout history, the US has created laws that have discriminated against people of color, and as a result, examples of differential treatment on the basis of race can be found throughout the criminal legal system. This brief aims to provide a comprehensive overview of racial disparities at each level of the criminal legal system and highlight how each decision point of the system impacts the next, resulting

August 18, 2021
Brief
 

The student loan pause and the pandemic-induced recession will have repercussions for metrics that inform federal higher education accountability. Although there are other forms of accountability within higher education, the federal role generally focuses on regulating the provision of federal financial aid. Institutions with poor outcomes risk losing eligibility to provide Title IV grants and loans to their

August 16, 2021
Brief
 

Apprenticeship is an important workforce development strategy in Germany and is growing in prominence in the United States. Intermediaries, or organizations that facilitate the successful implementation of apprenticeship with employers and apprentices, help ensure a successful and high-quality experience in both countries’ systems. In this brief, we compare the German and US apprenticeship systems and discuss

August 13, 2021
Research Report
 

Disaggregation of data by race and ethnicity is a critical tool for shining a light on racialized systems of privilege and oppression. Despite strong ethical and practical reasons for disaggregating data along these lines, many high-value datasets lack sufficient information on race and ethnicity. In response, data scientists and researchers have developed creative statistical and analytic methods for appending

August 13, 2021
Research Report
 

Uninsurance among citizen children with any noncitizen parents rose from 6.0 to 8.0 percent between 2016 and 2019. This increase reversed much of the coverage gains they had experienced between 2013 and 2016 and was larger than that for citizen children with only citizen parents. The Medicaid/Children’s Health Insurance Program participation rate among eligible citizen children with noncitizen parents also fell

August 12, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

This report summarizes the first-year results of the District of Columbia’s Flexible Rent Subsidy Program (DC Flex), which gave families an annual subsidy of $7,200 in an escrow account and allowed them to decide how much rental assistance to withdraw each month. The randomized controlled trial evaluation tested whether the shallow rental subsidy was effective at helping families with extremely low incomes avoid

August 10, 2021
Research Report
 

Associate Vice President of the Housing Finance Policy Center, Janneke Ratcliffe, provided testimony before the Boston City Council Committee on Housing & Community Development. The hearing included a discussion on the city’s homeownership gaps. In her oral testimony, Janneke shared evidence about the Boston’s homeownership assistance program, STASH, down payment assistance, and how to target assistance for

August 10, 2021
Testimony
 

Black and Hispanic/Latinx adults report experiencing discrimination when seeking health care at higher rates than white adults, which raises the question: How might these reported experiences adversely affect health care? The Urban Institute’s December 2020 Well-Being and Basic Needs Survey asked respondents about the consequences of and actions they took in response to being treated or judged unfairly because

August 9, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

In this brief, we determine the extent of perceptions of unfair treatment or judgment due to race and ethnicity across five domains during the COVID-19 pandemic: At work or when applying for jobs When interacting with police or law enforcement When applying for social services or public assistance When trying to rent a room or apartment or buy a house To do so, we draw on data from the Urban Institute’s

August 9, 2021
Brief
 

This brief describes adults’ perceptions of unfair treatment due to their racial or ethnic background while seeking social services or public assistance in the months leading up to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also discuss what happens when people delay receiving or do not receive needed services and identify several strategies that may reduce experiences of unfair treatment or judgment based on race or

August 9, 2021
Brief
 

In this brief, we present findings from follow-up interviews with 39 Black and African American nonelderly adults ages 18 to 64 who participated in the Urban Institute’s September 2020 Coronavirus Tracking Survey. We designed our follow-up interviews to explore accounts of discrimination and unfair judgment and assess their consequences. Interviews took place between December 2020 and February 2021. We find the

August 9, 2021
Research Report
 

In this brief, the authors analyze Ginnie Mae’s request for input (RFI) on issuer eligibility. While some provisions of the RFI are well-balanced, others can have a very detrimental impact nonbank issuer liquidity. In particular, the subtraction of excess MSRs from adjusted net worth is very punitive. This would disincentivize issuers from holding excess MSRs, which can be a source of liquidity. The authors

August 6, 2021
Brief
 

Policymakers often rely on income-related metrics of the hospital facility alone as reported in the Medicare Cost Report to inform policy decisions.  Yet, this approach provides only a limited view of a hospital’s financial health. This paper presents a replicable method for a comprehensive analysis of the financial performance of hospitals in the context of their membership in health systems.  It

August 5, 2021
Journal Article
 

The ECE workforce experiences high levels of stress, partly because they have low incomes and limited access to professional and personal supports for their own well-being. In addition, the ECE workforce experiences sociopolitical stressors (i.e., stressors that arise from political legislation or from political leaders’ threatening rhetoric). This descriptive study examines one specific set of sociopolitical

August 3, 2021
Research Report
 

Assistant teachers play an important role in Head Start and other early care and education (ECE) programs. This study found that assistant teachers contribute to classroom quality in the program’s day-to-day implementation. Thirty-eight assistant–lead teaching teams from Head Start preschool classrooms across 14 Head Start centers within the larger agency participated in this study. Dual-language learner (DLL)

August 3, 2021
Research Report