In this brief, the authors analyze Ginnie Mae’s request for input (RFI) on issuer eligibility. While some provisions of the RFI are well-balanced, others can have a very detrimental impact nonbank issuer liquidity. In particular, the subtraction of excess MSRs from adjusted net worth is very punitive. This would disincentivize issuers from holding excess MSRs, which can be a source of liquidity. The authors

August 6, 2021
Brief
 

Policymakers often rely on income-related metrics of the hospital facility alone as reported in the Medicare Cost Report to inform policy decisions.  Yet, this approach provides only a limited view of a hospital’s financial health. This paper presents a replicable method for a comprehensive analysis of the financial performance of hospitals in the context of their membership in health systems.  It

August 5, 2021
Journal Article
 

The ECE workforce experiences high levels of stress, partly because they have low incomes and limited access to professional and personal supports for their own well-being. In addition, the ECE workforce experiences sociopolitical stressors (i.e., stressors that arise from political legislation or from political leaders’ threatening rhetoric). This descriptive study examines one specific set of sociopolitical

August 3, 2021
Research Report
 

Assistant teachers play an important role in Head Start and other early care and education (ECE) programs. This study found that assistant teachers contribute to classroom quality in the program’s day-to-day implementation. Thirty-eight assistant–lead teaching teams from Head Start preschool classrooms across 14 Head Start centers within the larger agency participated in this study. Dual-language learner (DLL)

August 3, 2021
Research Report
 

Children in kindergarten and first grade are missing more school than at any other point during the elementary years. Some research has examined schoolwide policies and practices that might help reduce absences, but limited research has focused on the role of teachers. This is the first known study to examine the role teacher preparation programs play in teachers’ perceptions of and knowledge about policy and

August 3, 2021
Research Report
 

Communities across the country are ending veteran and chronic homelessness. The benefits of ending homelessness for an individual are well documented, but much less is known about the community-level impacts of ending homelessness. This report explores the impact of ending veteran and/or chronic homelessness in four communities. We observed that the effort required to end homelessness for a population results in

August 3, 2021
Research Report
 

This brief examines the effect the COVID-19 pandemic has had on the small group insurance market. Researchers conducted structured discussions with insurers, small businesses, and brokers in six states to assess the impact the pandemic has had on the small group market and any changes to coverage during the pandemic. Despite being some of the hardest hit employers, small employers did all they could to maintain

August 3, 2021
Brief
 

Apprenticeships in the US have expanded in recent years in what has been dubbed an “apprenticeship renaissance.” But even though such opportunities continue to grow, rural communities demand greater attention. The expansion of apprenticeship may leave rural communities behind because they face unique obstacles, such as lack of public transportation options, small employers with limited resources, limited

August 2, 2021
Research Report
 

The lack of affordable, accessible, and high-quality rental units in the US has exacerbated economic and racial disparities. As cities and other jurisdictions look to implement housing policies for an equitable recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, many stakeholders are skeptical about inclusionary zoning’s (IZ) ability to produce and preserve enough rental housing for renters with low incomes and renters of

July 30, 2021
Brief
 

The lack of affordable, accessible, and high-quality rental units in the US has exacerbated economic and racial disparities. As cities and other jurisdictions look to implement housing policies for an equitable recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, rent control remains highly contentious, with diverging opinions among stakeholders on the program’s ability to produce and preserve enough rental housing for renters

July 30, 2021
Brief
 

Using information from the Urban Institute and the International Association of Forensic Nurses evaluation of the SAFE Protocol, we provide guidance and recommendations for efforts to promulgate it through training and technical assistance based on stakeholders’ reported familiarity with and knowledge, implementation, and adoption of the SAFE Protocol. Released in 2013, the second edition of the National

July 30, 2021
Research Report
 

Using information from the Urban Institute and the International Association of Forensic Nurses evaluation of the SAFE Protocol, this brief addresses the key components of sustaining a community-based response to survivors of sexual assault and the necessity of improving services to be inclusive of all survivors. Released in 2013, the second edition of the National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic

July 30, 2021
Brief
 

Using information from the Urban Institute and the International Association of Forensic Nurses evaluation of the SAFE Protocol, this brief examines stakeholders’ awareness of the SAFE Protocol and effective implementation and their perspectives on the protocol’s strengths and challenges. Released in 2013, the second edition of the National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations, or SAFE

July 30, 2021
Brief
 

Using information from the Urban Institute and the International Association of Forensic Nurses evaluation of the SAFE Protocol, this report identifies the designated public payers for sexual assault medical forensic exams (SAMFEs) in states and jurisdictions and examines which parts of the exam process are paid for by these designated payers and stakeholders' perceptions of the extent to which survivors receive

July 30, 2021
Research Report
 

Understanding the potential child care needs for parents who work early in the morning, evenings, nights, and weekends has become a growing concern for policymakers trying to make child care more accessible. Families working these nontraditional (NTH) schedules—defined here as anytime outside of 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. on weekdays—can face extra challenges

July 30, 2021
Brief
 

In this brief, we describe the methods, data collection activities, and participants of the Urban Institute and the International Association of Forensic Nurses evaluation of the SAFE Protocol. Released in 2013, the second edition of the National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations, or SAFE Protocol, is a voluntary guide developed by the Department of Justice that local and state

July 30, 2021
Brief
 

Many immigrant families have avoided safety net and pandemic relief programs in recent years over concerns that their participation would have adverse immigration consequences. These chilling effects on program participation occurred in the context of a restrictive immigration policy environment under the Trump administration, including the expansion of the “public charge” rule. Though the

July 29, 2021
Brief
 

Using data to understand revenue and expenditure patterns in higher education is crucial toward building knowledge of higher education policy. This brief, using data from the Urban Institute’s Education Data Portal, will introduce readers to data sources to describe patterns and pose questions for further research. We highlight data from the Office of Federal Student Aid on institutions’ 90/10 ratios, financial

July 29, 2021
Brief
 

Expanding the child tax credit (CTC) can be an effective way to reduce child poverty. The American Rescue Plan Act temporarily increased the value of the credit from $2,000 to $3,000 for children ages 6 to 16 and to $3,600 for younger children, expanded the number of children eligible for the credit by including 17-year-olds, and made it fully refundable so that all families with low incomes and qualifying

July 29, 2021
Brief
 

In an earlier brief, we estimated that the American Rescue Plan Act, enacted in March 2021, would reduce the 2021 annual poverty rate to 8.7 percent (Wheaton et al. 2021). We now project a 2021 poverty rate of 7.7 percent for 2021. The revised projection accounts for improvements in the economy, incorporates updated state-level information on pandemic-related policies, and improves the method for weighting the

July 28, 2021
Research Report
 

As state and local governments implemented stay-at-home orders to reduce the spread of the COVID-19 virus in March and April 2020, policymakers at all levels of government mounted emergency relief programs, attempting not only to mitigate the impending health and economic crisis, but also to do so equitably. In interviews with program designers across the US, we learned that emergency assistance program

July 28, 2021
Research Report
 

The July edition of At a Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing the composition of the mortgage market, agency nonbank credit scores, and home price growth. Housing Finance at a Glance: Monthly Chartbooks Archive

July 27, 2021
Research Report
 

This handout illustrates the varied approaches three jurisdictions—two cities and a school district—took to reduce police budgets and reallocate funding to advance a vision of public safety that includes investments in community-based services and infrastructure. We pose five questions that policymakers should consider when looking to shift public safety funding to new approaches.

July 26, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

The nationwide uprising against police violence in the wake of George Floyd’s murder by a Minneapolis police officer sparked new conversations about the scope and role of policing. Evidence shows that there are a variety of promising solutions to address violence that do not rely on police, and a growing number of jurisdictions are considering and adopting new public safety strategies. DC has urgent public

July 26, 2021
Brief
 

Probation revocation to jail or prison can result when a person is arrested for a new crime or is in violation of their probation conditions. The nature of probation supervision and how these violations relate to revocation varies depending on individual factors and the local context. Through the Reducing Revocations Challenge, the Urban Institute partnered with the Adult Probation Services Division of the

July 23, 2021
Research Report