In this brief, the fifth in a series prepared by HFPC researchers with support from the mortgage servicing collaborative, the authors examine three options for the mortgage servicing compensation structure: (1) retain the status quo, (2) move to a fee-for-service model, and (3) move to a central default utility model. The authors discuss the pros and cons of each scenario and assess how each option would perform under various

April 19, 2019
Brief
 

New York City shows a tremendous need for robust social services. Nearly 3.8 million people (45 percent of residents) live in poverty or just above the threshold—and income inequality continues to rise. Approximately 1.4 million New Yorkers face food insecurity, and more than 400,000 people live in public housing. New York City has the largest number of youths disconnected from school and employment in the country, and fewer

April 18, 2019
Research Report
 

This report presents a case study of the Chicago Housing Authority’s (CHA’s) work requirement policy, one of a small number of work requirements implemented by housing authorities. The report describes the CHA work requirement, the policy’s implementation and how it has changed, and perceptions of implementation and outcomes from key CHA and service provider staff and residents. The CHA work requirement has been in place for

April 16, 2019
Research Report
 

Place-based revitalization initiatives seek to make every neighborhood safe and healthy and to connect them to high-quality services. These initiatives share a few common characteristics. They concentrate resources in a specific geography; combine physical revitalization with the provision of services (e.g., health, education, and job training programs); leverage existing institutions, networks, and capital; and engage local

April 16, 2019
Research Report
 

The Parent PLUS loan program, introduced during the 1980 reauthorization of the Higher Education Act, was designed to help high-asset families who needed liquidity to cover their expected family contribution (EFC). Since then, however, policymakers have pushed the program past its original mission, leaving some low-income parents with loans they cannot repay. Some policymakers have suggested easing repayment requirements, but we

April 16, 2019
Research Report
 

Many families live on the financial edge, but a natural disaster can throw even better-situated families into financial turmoil. A natural disaster can lead to increased debt and delinquencies—increasing financial stress in the near term, but also longer-term declines in financial health. This study builds evidence on how natural disasters impact residents’ financial health. Our analyses compare the financial

April 11, 2019
Research Report
 

The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program provides an essential safety net for low-income people with disabilities and low-income seniors, assisting 8.1 million beneficiaries at an annual cost of $55 billion. While SSI significantly reduces the poverty rate for beneficiaries and their families, participants still have very modest incomes. Beneficiaries who attempt to increase their income and savings through work are

April 9, 2019
Working Paper
 

The Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, commonly known as Pugwash, brought together notable scientists from both sides of the Iron Curtain to discuss nuclear disarmament in an informal but serious atmosphere starting in 1957. This literature review examines philanthropy’s role in supporting the Pugwash conferences and evaluates the most significant scholarly claims of their impact. Influence  Pugwash is

April 8, 2019
Brief
 

Philanthropy has a long history of supporting college student groups and influencing worldview-shaping movements through them. This literature review surveys research on several major college student groups in modern U.S. history to provide funders with actionable insights from historical case studies. Special attention is paid to: Evidence of the impact of these groups in shaping worldviews The role of philanthropy in enabling

April 8, 2019
Brief
 

Using a microsimulation model, this paper follows GenX and Early Millennial Americans between 2020 and 2050. Projections suggest they will find it difficult to maintain or improve their economic circumstances between their work and retirement years. Although GenX and Early Millennial retirees are expected to be better off than current retirees on absolute measures of income, they are expected to be worse off than current

April 5, 2019
Working Paper
 

Returns to college education have been growing over the last several decades and are likely to continue growing in the future, but they are not the same for all, providing different incentives to invest in education. This study explores the role that race and gender play in the earnings of college-educated workers. It estimates returns to college in earnings and old-age income, projected in 2050, by race and gender. It also

April 5, 2019
Working Paper
 

In 2015, Hamilton Families launched the Heading Home Initiative (HHI), a $30 million homelessness rapid re-housing initiative in partnership with the City of San Francisco and the San Francisco Unified School District, as part of an effort to end long-term family homelessness. While preliminary evidence on rapid re-housing is positive, few studies have specifically examined the efficacy of rapid re-housing in high-cost and low-

April 5, 2019
Research Report
 

The Arizona State Retirement System (ASRS) pays pension benefits to the state’s public school teachers, but the system is substantially underfunded. This report uses an actuarial model to estimate how much taxpayer contributions to ASRS will likely have to increase to close the system’s financing gap under current benefit rules and various investment return scenarios. Our results show that annual employer contributions to ASRS

April 3, 2019
Research Report
 

If a single mother earns $25,000 per year, can she receive a subsidy to help pay for child care? What if she decides to attend a training program? If she does qualify for a subsidy, how much will she have to pay out of pocket? The answers to these questions depend on a family’s exact circumstances. Child care subsidies are provided through a federal block grant program called the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF). Within

April 2, 2019
Brief
 

More than 1.6 million children in the United States have at least 1 parent in the military, including at least 600,000 children under age 6, according to estimates from the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). While parenting under any circumstances can be challenging, military families often face scenarios that can make it harder to parent effectively. The programs profiled in this brief can inform both the development of military

April 1, 2019
Brief
 

The federal government is considering a proposed change to long-standing policy in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) that would limit states’ ability to waive work-related time limits for able-bodied adults without dependents (referred to as “ABAWDs” in statute) who receive nutrition assistance through the program. Nearly all states waived work-related time limits during the Great Recession. In 2016, Kentucky

March 29, 2019
Research Report
 

This report examines how adjustments to Florida’s length of stay requirements would reduce the state’s prison population with minimal impact on additional justice system contact. One in three people in the Florida prison population (34%), if released immediately, would experience no additional justice system contact during the balance of their original prison terms, even with no additional reentry support. Adjustments to reduce

March 28, 2019
Brief
 

In response to declining youth arrests and research demonstrating the detrimental effects of youth incarceration, states and localities have begun to fundamentally shift their youth justice approach towards community-based strategies to both prevent and respond to harmful and illegal behaviors. Although this new approach offers financial savings over the outdated and expensive institutional confinement model, building an array

March 27, 2019
Research Report
 

The March 2019 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing first lien origination volume, cash-out refinances, the nonbank mortgage origination share, and the share of homes in or near negative equity. Housing Finance at a Glance: Monthly Chartbooks Archive

March 27, 2019
Research Report
 

Effective marginal tax rates measure how a household’s material resources change as its earned income rises. For example, when a household’s earnings from work rise by $100, its net resources may rise by less than $100 as those earnings may be subject to payroll and federal, state, and local income taxes, and the size of any public assistance payments the household receives may fall. This paper describes our analysis of the

March 27, 2019
Brief
 

This analysis provides information on some of the consequences should a case pending before the US Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit be decided in favor of the plaintiffs. The plaintiffs argue that the entire Affordable Care Act be eliminated due to the fact that he individual mandate penalties were set to $0 beginning with plan year 2019. We estimate the state-by-state implications of full ACA repeal for insurance coverage

March 26, 2019
Brief
 

Children of immigrants will make up a critical share of our nation’s future workforce, but they are less likely than other children to participate in early education programs known to support school readiness and long-term productivity. This study describes the characteristics and enrollment of children of immigrants using the most current and comprehensive dataset available: the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten

March 22, 2019
Research Report
 

With 2020 decennial census fast approaching, communities around the country are mobilizing to reach the goal of counting every person, only once, and in the right place. Organizations with analytic and coding skills can contribute their expertise to help their local planning and outreach efforts succeed. Local data intermediaries, like the members of the National Neighborhood Indicators Partnership, are natural players to join

March 22, 2019
Brief
 

The Federal Work-Study (FWS) Program allocates funding to colleges and universities to pay a portion of the wages of student workers.  Republicans and Democrats have recently proposed adjustments to the allocation formula, which is based primarily on institutions’ historical participation in the program, rather than students’ financial circumstances. This change would reduce inequities but would not go far in

March 21, 2019
Brief