In Texas v. United States, the plaintiffs argue that the entire Affordable Care Act (ACA) should be invalidated due to the elimination of the individual mandate penalties under the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. In earlier work, we estimated that a finding for the plaintiffs would lead to an increase of 20 million people uninsured, a 65 percent increase in the number of nonelderly people without insurance coverage. In this follow-

June 19, 2019
Brief
 

Since 2016, Ginnie Mae has tried to combat the churning of VA mortgages, which results in unusually fast prepayment speeds and makes all government mortgages slightly more expensive, particularly loans made to veterans. The additional cost fast prepayments impose upon all government mortgage borrowers in the form of higher mortgage rates is 7 basis points, or 0.07 percent, an unnecessary cost with no benefit to the borrower. And

June 19, 2019
Brief
 

The current administration has proposed changing the way we measure inflation when setting the federal poverty thresholds because it believes that the current measure, the Consumer Price Index for Urban Consumers (CPI-U), overstates inflation. An alternative measure the administration is considering and seeking public input on is the Chained Consumer Price Index for Urban Consumers, commonly known as “chained CPI.”

June 18, 2019
Brief
 

Families with infants and toddlers face significant, ongoing child-related expenses, such as daycare, diapers, and formula, that can strain household budgets. Couple these with unexpected shocks, such as a medical bill for a sick child or lost wages from caring for a sick child (i.e., no paid leave) and a lack of emergency savings, and it’s easy to see how families with young children—even against a backdrop of low

June 17, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

Child care subsidies can help low-income parents ensure the healthy development of their children while working to support their families. Yet the Child Care and Development Fund—the primary federal program supporting access to affordable child care—only has enough funding to serve a fraction of eligible families. This brief examines what would happen if child care subsidies were funded so every family with income below 150

June 14, 2019
Research Report
 

This brief presents an analysis of targeted reforms to the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Taken together, the two policies analyzed here would lower federal health spending while improving insurance and medical care affordability for people faced with the full cost of nongroup insurance coverage. The first policy would either introduce a public insurance option offering ACA compliant coverage in the nongroup market or cap private

June 14, 2019
Brief
 

Food insecurity, defined as limited or uncertain access to nutritious food because of a lack of resources, is a significant risk for many families with infants and toddlers. Early childhood is a critical period for a child’s physical growth and cognitive development, as well as a time when child-related expenses may be high. Food may be one of the first expenses families forgo when budgets are already stretched thin.

June 13, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

Families raising infants and toddlers experience singular joys—and unique challenges. Against a backdrop of an improving economy, many new parents struggle to pay for basic expenses, find affordable child care, and balance work with family responsibilities. In this fact sheet, we explore the extent to which families of young children experience material hardship and psychological distress using a unique data source, the

June 13, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

Businesses are beginning to move beyond traditional health insurance and retirement plans to improve employee well-being in multiple domains. The programs they offer are typically voluntary and can include financial well-being, paying for educational expenses, and on-site resource navigators who help employees address a wide range of issues. These innovative well-being benefits have the potential to make employees more engaged,

June 13, 2019
Brief
 

Washington, DC, is a city of contrasts with respect to residents’ financial security. While some residents are among the country’s most financially secure, others find it hard to make ends meet. High housing costs, unequal opportunity, and economically segregated neighborhoods make it challenging for some residents to feel financially secure and to weather unexpected expenses and emergencies. The city has extensive

June 13, 2019
Brief
 

Service providers are critical partners in making progress on many challenging social issues. They are at the front line of service delivery, and they inform public strategies on behalf of the vulnerable populations they serve. Increasingly, they are asked to adapt to outcomes-oriented approaches that are promoted by governments and other funders to find programs that effectively address stubborn social challenges and combat

June 12, 2019
Brief
 

Workers with training in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are in high demand in the United States and are essential to innovation and economic growth. Apprenticeship is a proven strategy for training workers, but it is underutilized in STEM occupations. This report explores employers’ experiences with STEM apprenticeship. STEM apprentices are concentrated in technician occupations that do not require a

June 12, 2019
Research Report
 

This comment letter responds to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s proposal to amend Regulation C to increase the reporting threshold under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act. The researchers provide evidence that increasing the reporting threshold from 25 to 50 loans would materially affect the amount of information available to the marketplace, especially for rural and low and moderate-income areas and for multifamily

June 11, 2019
Commentary
 

The earned income tax credit provides substantial assistance to low- and moderate-income workers. Benefits tilt heavily to families with children. Prompted in part by the success of the credit and in part by shortcomings in the credit, policymakers, advocates, and analysts have offered up reform proposals. In this report, we describe the credit’s current effects and then analyze the credit’s basic elements (its eligibility

June 10, 2019
Research Report
 

The cost-of-living refund (CLR), a proposal from the Economic Security Project, would revise the current earned income tax credit (EITC) by increasing benefits for many people, expanding eligibility for the credit, and paying the credit in advance via monthly payments. The proposal would provide up to $4,000 annually to single workers and $8,000 for married couples. Benefits would phase in more rapidly than under the current

June 10, 2019
Brief
 

What do we want to know?  Despite significant global progress toward gender equality across several key indicators in the economic, social, political and legal realms, a substantial difference persists in labour force participation rates between men and women in low- and middle-income countries. The current review advances knowledge of women’s economic empowerment by systematically reviewing qualitative literature to

June 10, 2019
Research Report
 

Although we have big problems and need organizations with the capacity to respond and get in front of them, you don’t have to be big to achieve meaningful impact. Moreover, growth in size does not guarantee growth in impact. If the impact wave is too focused on models and outcomes that can only be scaled and broadly replicated, there’s a chance of overlooking the unique impact of small, community-based nonprofits.

June 10, 2019
Journal Article
 

This paper provides estimates of the total cost of and distributional effects of nonbusiness tax expenditures claimed on individual tax returns after enactment of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, taking account of interactions among provisions. Nonbusiness tax expenditures will reduce tax liability by $1.2 trillion in 2019, about 5 percent more than the sum of the costs of the separate provisions. Tax expenditures, on average,

June 5, 2019
Research Report
 

The decennial census, which aims to count every US resident each decade, is critical to our democracy. Census population counts guide appropriations and federal funding allocations, congressional redistricting, state and local budgets, and data-driven business and research decisions. But the 2020 Census faces unprecedented challenges and threats to its accuracy. Demographic changes over the past decade will make the population

June 4, 2019
Research Report
 

The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development has a long history of investing in a more innovative and productive homebuilding industry. This report provides an update to a 2003 report, Building Better Homes: Government Strategies for Promoting Innovation in Housing, to better reflect the current understanding and practice of innovation in housing and identify the most useful Federal role for promoting such innovation.

June 4, 2019
Research Report
 

Paid home care can significantly improve the lives of older adults with disabilities and their families, but recipients often incur substantial out-of-pocket spending. This study simulates the financial burden of paid home care for a nationally representative sample of non-Medicaid community dwelling adults age 65 and older. The results show that 74 percent could fund at least two years of a moderate amount of paid home care if

June 4, 2019
Journal Article
 

Every year, millions of workers in the United States experience debilitating illnesses or injuries or the worsening of chronic conditions that limit their ability to remain on the job. This fact sheet describes evidence-based early intervention programs, their impact on employment outcomes and rates of disability and options to expand worker access to these programs.

June 3, 2019
Fact Sheet
 

This study assessed the impact of unpaid caregiving on the likelihood of working and hours worked for caregivers and calculated the related cost of forgone earnings in 2013 and 2050. The current economic cost is about $67 billion, which by midcentury will likely double to $132–$147 billion. Opportunity cost per caregiver will likely increase by 8–20 percent and per US resident by 54–72 percent. Future policy

June 3, 2019
Journal Article
 

The federal earned income tax credit (EITC) is a refundable tax credit that provides substantial cash benefits to low-income working families with children. Working adults without children at home— including noncustodial parents, who are considered “childless” for tax purposes—also face economic challenges but receive few EITC benefits. This research brief and accompanying state fact sheets explore what

May 31, 2019
Brief