Policymakers have expressed increased interest in program-level higher education accountability measures as a supplement to, or in place of, institution-level metrics. But it is unclear what these measures should look like. In this report, we assess the ways program-level data could be developed to facilitate federal accountability. Evidence shows that what students study matters as much as, if not more than,

February 11, 2021
Research Report
 

Between 2017 and 2019, we visited 11 correctional facilities managed by the Florida Department of Corrections, the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department, and the Montgomery County Department of Correction and Rehabilitation to develop an understanding of the challenges and practices involved in managing correctional contraband. We conducted facility observations and semistructured interviews with staff and

February 9, 2021
Brief
 

This brief details the Minnesota Department of Corrections’ (MnDOC) experiences optimizing its surveillance technologies—including benefits and challenges—and provides recommendations for correctional agencies using or planning to integrate audio analytic technologies and other upgrades in their surveillance systems. Between 2017 and 2019, we worked with MnDOC to optimize its surveillance system in two state

February 9, 2021
Brief
 

Community development investment differs from other forms of investment because community investors use financial tools explicitly to engender social good. However, community development investment can be more challenging to deploy in small and midsize cities. This report describes the challenges small and midsize cities can face in attracting and sustaining the capital needed to develop a pipeline of community

February 9, 2021
Research Report
 

We estimate the implications of five alternative Marketplace subsidy schedules, all providing more generous premium tax credit and cost-sharing assistance than that available under current law. All options would extend financial assistance to those with incomes above 400 percent of FPL, but how much they increase assistance for people in different income groups varies. We show the implications of each

February 8, 2021
Brief
 

Pervading the history and tax laws applying to foundations is a persistent suspicion of the wealthy and of concentrated power, while the battles between foundations and Congress largely center on who has control over the uses of wealth. Foundation laws, and by extension, laws proposed or enacted for donor advised funds and other charities, often develop on the basis of the administrative expedience possible with

February 8, 2021
Brief
 

This Commonwealth Fund brief synthesizes two Urban Institute reports on the public health insurance landscape for pregnant and postpartum women and the potential of a postpartum coverage extension to close coverage gaps. We find the following: Our current system of publicly supported coverage options for pregnant and postpartum women is a complex patchwork that varies tremendously by income, immigration

February 5, 2021
Brief
 

In addition to financing crucial health care services for millions of Americans, Medicare benefits the broader economy. The funds disbursed by the program support the employment of millions of workers, and the salaries paid to those workers generate billions of dollars of tax revenue. We estimate that Medicare directly financed 3.7 million jobs in the health care sector in 2019, accounting for 22 percent of all

February 5, 2021
Research Report
 

This brief examines primary care physician responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted structured discussions with primary care practices of varying sizes and geographies to assess the impact  the pandemic has had on their practices, both from an operational standpoint and a financial one. Operationally the greatest challenges were accessing and acquiring PPE and operating without consistent treatment

February 5, 2021
Brief
 

This brief is part of a series focused on how well major federal safety net programs serve young people—defined as those ages 14 to 24. The series pays special attention to young people who live independently. This brief focuses on the circumstances under which young people are able to access cash assistance to help them meet their basic needs through the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program

February 4, 2021
Brief
 

This brief is part of a series focused on how well major federal safety net programs serve young people—defined as those ages 14 to 24. The series pays special attention to young people who live independently. This brief focuses on the circumstances under which young people are able to access the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and Child Tax Credit (CTC), the major federal tax credits available for young people

February 4, 2021
Brief
 

The Connecticut Department of Housing, in conjunction with the Department of Social Services, commissioned this study, the first comprehensive look at affordable and accessible housing needs in the state, in May 2020. The research team gathered and analyzed data from state, federal, and public sources to describe and project trends in Connecticut’s affordable and accessible housing supply and needs across

February 4, 2021
Research Report
 

This brief is part of a series focused on how well major federal safety net programs serve young people—defined as those ages 14 to 24. The series pays special attention to young people who live independently. This brief focuses on the circumstances under which young people are able to access Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)—the largest federal nutrition assistance program—and what is known about

February 4, 2021
Brief
 

This brief is part of a series focused on how well major federal safety net programs serve young people—defined as those ages 14 to 24. The series pays special attention to young people who live independently. This brief focuses on the circumstances under which young people are able to access Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP)—the major federal medical insurance programs available for

February 4, 2021
Brief
 

This brief is part of a series focused on how well major federal safety net programs serve young people—defined as those ages 14 to 24. The series pays special attention to young people who live independently. This brief focuses on the circumstances under which young people are eligible for public housing, Section 8 project-based vouchers and Section 8 project-based rental assistance, and housing choice vouchers

February 4, 2021
Brief
 

This synthesis brief builds on five separate briefs examining key safety net programs and explores the extent to which key federal safety net programs help meet young people’s basic needs for housing, food, health care, and income during this transitional life stage. It presents findings from an initial exploration of issues relevant to young people, based on a quick review of literature and conversations with

February 4, 2021
Brief
 

Workers are facing many immediate concerns right now—such as access to health care, job security, and flexible scheduling—that are all elements of job quality that may vary significantly by job, employer, and industry. Workers may value aspects of their job differently in varying circumstances. For example, workers with significant child care responsibilities may have a greater need for flexible scheduling,

February 4, 2021
Brief
 

A growing body of research identifies the importance of different aspects of job quality for a range of worker well-being outcomes. Whether jobs offer decent wages, provide adequate hours on predictable schedules, deliver retirement and health benefits, foster safe and respectful working conditions, and so on, matters for the financial and economic well-being, physical and mental health, and general happiness

February 4, 2021
Brief
 

Faced with the COVID-19 pandemic and economic recession, many American workers, employers, and policymakers are now thinking about job quality in ways they had not previously. Lack of access to health care, worker safety concerns, the need for flexible work arrangements and paid sick leave, and disproportionate job losses in certain job sectors that pay low wages have underscored the ways in which job quality

February 4, 2021
Brief
 

Workers without children living at home, called “childless” for tax purposes, are eligible for relatively small benefits from the earned income tax credit (EITC). We analyze the effect of increasing the EITC for this group and extending benefits to workers ages 19 and older, rather than restricting benefits for childless workers to those aged 25 to 64 as is the case under current law. Increasing the size of the

February 4, 2021
Brief
 

In the four decades since 1980, US colleges and universities have seen the number of students from abroad quadruple. This rise in enrollment and degree attainment affects the global supply of highly educated workers, the flow of talent to the US labor market, and the financing of US higher education. Yet, the impacts are far from uniform, with significant differences evident by level of study and type of

February 4, 2021
Journal Article
 

Sustainable apprenticeships play a critical role in building a large-scale American apprenticeship system, and ultimately contribute to a robust and diversified American workforce. One approach to sustainability and quality is the creation of employer consortia, or groups of employers. For employers, consortia offer cost-effective mechanisms for developing apprenticeships into an enduring talent development

February 4, 2021
Brief
 

In 2019, as in prior years, Medicaid physician fees remained well below Medicare and private insurance fees despite growth in Medicaid enrollment. Low Medicaid physician fees have important implications in terms of access to care for Medicaid enrollees and the effects of proposals to expand coverage through a Medicaid buy-in program or a Medicaid-like public option. External Link (payment is required to access

February 3, 2021
Journal Article
 

Medicare buy-in policies gained prominence as potential incremental health reforms in the mid-1990s, after the Clinton administration's more ambitious health reform plan failed. Such proposals from that era would have created a guaranteed source of health insurance older adults could buy, before becoming eligible for Medicare at age 65. In this brief, we discuss the potential merits of a Medicare buy-in policy

February 3, 2021
Brief
 

Museums that preserve and share African American history and culture are essential in educating the public and fostering space for dialogue. Yet these institutions frequently struggle to sustain adequate funding, jeopardizing their critical contributions. The Institute of Museum and Library Services’ Museum Grants for African American History and Culture (AAHC) program provides targeted capacity-building support

February 2, 2021
Research Report