This memo examines the relationship between the incidence of childhood asthma and substandard housing with a focus on Latine and indigenous households in New Mexico and Arizona. BIPOC households are disproportionately impacted by both asthma incidence and substandard housing. Using state environmental public health tracking databases and Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy data we aimed to better

January 12, 2021
Brief
 

Educational stability is a critical factor in youth involvement in the justice system – particularly among youth of color. In California specifically, school responses to student behavior can serve as nonjudicial drivers of higher rates of incarceration among youth of color. This memo examines county-level arrests and measures of educational stability among California youth, and identifies 10 California counties

January 12, 2021
Brief
 

In this brief, we provide nationally representative estimates of telehealth use among nonelderly adults six months into the COVID-19 pandemic, as of September 2020. We use data from the second wave of the Urban Institute’s Coronavirus Tracking Survey, fielded September 11 through 28, 2020. The survey contained questions about telehealth use, satisfaction with telehealth use, wanting telehealth but not getting it

January 12, 2021
Brief
 

North Carolina changed its supervision revocation policies in 2011 as part of the passage and implementation of the Justice Reinvestment Act, aimed at reducing prison spending and reinvesting savings in more effective public safety strategies. In addition to adding options for responding to supervision violations in the community, North Carolina created Confinement in Response to Violation (CRV) centers to

January 12, 2021
Brief
 

In this report, we present baseline and process study findings of an evaluation of the Urban Alliance High School Internship Program, which provides professional internships, mentorship and coaching, college and career skills training to high school seniors. The report focuses on the program’s operations in Washington, DC, Baltimore, Chicago, and Northern Virginia. It explains the program model and its

January 12, 2021
Research Report
 

This report investigates arguments that justify state preemption of local lawmaking on the basis that local laws produce a harmful “patchwork” of regulations within a state. We examine the use and merits of the patchwork argument across 10 policy areas­, (focusing on paid sick leave, rent control, plastic bag bans and regulations, and antidiscrimination laws) and review the evidence around the patchwork argument

January 7, 2021
Research Report
 

As the United States heads into its tenth month struggling to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus, social distancing is critical. And though having a home is important for social distancing, millions of Americans risk losing theirs when the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) eviction moratorium ends January 31. Eviction and subsequent homelessness or doubling up in and sharing overcrowded

January 5, 2021
Brief
 

Background: Physicians’ time with patients is a critical input to care, but is typically measured retrospectively through survey instruments. Data collected through the use of electronic health records (EHRs) offer an alternative way to measure visit length. Objective: To measure how much time primary care physicians spend with their patients, during each visit. Research Design: We used a national source of

January 1, 2021
Brief
 

This brief is the third of seven toolkit resources supporting the Urban Institute’s formative evaluation of the VictimConnect Resource Center, a nationwide victims’ helpline operated by the National Center for Victims of Crime. The evaluation was conducted in 2019 and 2020 with funding from the National Institute of Justice. In this brief, we describe the activities that Urban’s researchers engaged in to

December 31, 2020
Brief
 

Launched in 2015 by the National Center for Victims of Crime, the VictimConnect Resource Center was the nation’s first (and is still its only) technology-based resource center to offer comprehensive helpline services to victims of all types of crime and their loved ones. In 2019, with funding from the National Institute of Justice, the Urban Institute launched a formative evaluation of VictimConnect in

December 31, 2020
Research Report
 

This brief is the fifth of seven toolkit resources supporting the Urban Institute’s formative evaluation of the VictimConnect Resource Center. The evaluation was conducted in 2019 and 2020 with funding from the National Institute of Justice. In this brief, we identify the goals of the planned outcome evaluation of VictimConnect, highlight the outcomes to be examined from VictimConnect’s logic model, and

December 31, 2020
Brief
 

This brief is the seventh of seven toolkit resources supporting the Urban Institute’s formative evaluation of the VictimConnect Resource Center, a nationwide victims’ helpline operated by the National Center for Victims of Crime. The evaluation was conducted in 2019 and 2020 with funding from the National Institute of Justice. In this brief, we present drafts of the instruments to be used in Urban’s planned

December 31, 2020
Brief
 

This brief is the sixth of seven toolkit resources supporting the Urban Institute’s formative evaluation of the VictimConnect Resource Center. The evaluation was conducted in 2019 and 2020 with funding from the National Institute of Justice. In this brief, we summarize activities that the National Center for Victims of Crime has engaged in with Urban’s assistance to build research capacity in preparation

December 31, 2020
Brief
 

How much has the COVID-19 pandemic changed America’s fiscal future and affected President-elect Biden’s opportunity to set a new course for fiscal policy? Largely as a consequence of the pandemic, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) in September projected a deficit of more than $3 trillion for 2020, three times higher than the original projection of $1 trillion made earlier this year. Yet even before the

December 30, 2020
Brief
 

Automated valuation models (AVMs), which allow for contact-free assessment of a home’s market value, hold great promise for reducing the costs and increasing the accuracy of home valuations. They have also been critical to supporting the real estate market during the COVID-19 pandemic. But AVMs in majority-Black neighborhoods produce larger errors, relative to the underlying sales price, than AVMs in majority-

December 29, 2020
Brief
 

The December 2020 edition of At a Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing the size and value of the US housing market, the share of loans in and near negative equity, COVID-19 forbearance rates, and agency gross issuance. Housing Finance at a Glance: Monthly Chartbooks Archive

December 29, 2020
Research Report
 

The national interest in narrowing the gaps in educational opportunity across socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic groups and in increasing educational attainment cannot be addressed without a strong federal effort. Pell grants, the primary form of federal investment in higher education, provide funding for low-income students to attend college. Increasing them is important but not sufficient. Among other issues,

December 28, 2020
Brief
 

States saw steep declines in revenues in the second quarter of 2020, though some of this was caused by shifting revenues into the next quarter and next fiscal year. Consequently, most states ended fiscal year 2020 uncertain about their fiscal bottom line.  Many states cut spending, laid off or furloughed workers, or used federal aid or rainy-day funds, while they waited to see what their revenues would be

December 24, 2020
Research Report
 

Place-based education and community change interventions such as Promise Neighborhoods face distinct challenges designing and executing high-quality evaluations. Because these efforts attempt to create population-level change by using a comprehensive continuum of cradle-to-career programming, experimental evaluation methods may be impractical or inappropriate. Nevertheless, planning, formative, and quasi-

December 23, 2020
Brief
 

Leah Sakala, a Senior Policy Associate in the Justice Policy Center, provided testimony in a public oversight roundtable before the District of Columbia Committee on the Judiciary & Public Safety on “Exploring Non-Law Enforcement Alternatives to Meeting Community Needs.” In her testimony she discusses her research around community-based public safety systems and how D.C. leaders might prioritize

December 23, 2020
Testimony
 

In October 2020, the Conference of State Bank Supervisors (CSBS) proposed prudential regulatory standards for nonbank mortgage servicers. Given that nonbank servicers are already regulated by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and pseudo-regulated by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and Ginnie Mae, the CSBS proposal raises several questions. In this brief, we explain how to structure nonbank regulation in a manner

December 23, 2020
Brief
 

In 2019, the Purple Line Equitable Transit-Oriented Development Collaborative received a JPMorgan Chase PRO Neighborhoods award. The Purple Line Collaborative is made up of three community development financial institutions (CDFIs): Enterprise Community Partners, the National Housing Trust, and the Latino Economic Development Center. With the PRO Neighborhoods grant, the three CDFIs are focused on lending to

December 22, 2020
Research Report
 

Youth engagement is the meaningful and sustained involvement of young people in efforts to create positive social change. This approach requires youth-serving organizations to rebalance traditional power dynamics between adults and young people, allowing youths to take on decisionmaking responsibilities. Collective impact initiatives such as Promise Neighborhoods are well-positioned to meaningfully incorporate

December 21, 2020
Brief
 

Food insecurity is associated with poorer educational outcomes across the education spectrum. At the K–12 level, receipt of food assistance through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as Food Stamps) or through universal school lunch is associated with positive, if small, effects on student outcomes. Little is known, however, about the relationship between SNAP receipt and college

December 21, 2020
Research Report