Joshua M. Sharfstein is a nonresident fellow in the Health Policy Center at the Urban Institute. He is associate dean for public health practice and training and professor of the practice in health policy and management at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. From 2011 to 2014, Sharfstein was secretary of the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, where he was involved in creating the state's groundbreaking model for hospital payment. From 2009 to 2011, Sharfstein was principal deputy commissioner of the US Food and Drug Administration, where he led the agency's transparency and performance management initiatives. From 2005 to 2009, as commissioner of health for Baltimore City, Sharfstein led innovative efforts that contributed to major declines in overdose deaths and infant mortality rates. From 2001 to 2005, he was minority professional staff and health policy adviser for Congressman Henry A. Waxman.