Objective: To test whether there were fewer missed medical appointments (“no-shows”) for patients and clinics affected by a significant public transportation expansion. Study setting: A new light rail line was opened in a major metropolitan area in June 2014. We obtained electronic health records data from an integrated health delivery system in the area with over three million appointments at 97

December 6, 2021
Journal Article
 

Denver’s expansion of supportive housing through the Denver Supportive Housing Social Impact Bond Initiative is beginning to pay off for the city, its homeless residents, and investors banking on social impact. This fact sheet highlights the status quo for health services in Denver for people experiencing cycles of homelessness and incarceration.

December 3, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

In 2016, the City and County of Denver launched the Denver Supportive Housing Social Impact Bond Initiative (Denver SIB) to shift resources from expensive emergency services to more permanent, affordable housing and supportive services. The initiative aimed to increase housing stability and decrease jail stays for people trapped in the homelessness-jail cycle. Funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s

December 3, 2021
Research Report
 

Foregrounding race and racism in immigration research is a critical priority because the majority of immigrants in the US are people of color, and conceptions of race intersect with the lived experiences of immigrant communities at multiple levels. Historical and structural racism have also shaped immigration policies and other policies that lead to disparities in outcomes. Yet the intersections between the US

December 2, 2021
Brief
 

In the aftermath of George Floyd’s murder, scrutiny of police officers—including those in schools—has increased. Social science research has shown that school mental health staff members contribute more to positive student outcomes than school police. Nonetheless, high school students in 37 states are more likely to attend a school with a police officer than with a social worker. Key Numbers Data from the 2017

December 2, 2021
Brief
 

The child tax credit (CTC) has grown to become a core component of American family tax and welfare policy. Temporary expansions made the credit fully refundable in 2021 – even very low-income families could receive the maximum benefit. On a conceptual level, full refundability transitions the CTC from being a conventional tax credit to something resembling family and child allowances common elsewhere.

December 2, 2021
Research Report
 

High prescription drug costs can contribute to out-of-pocket spending burdens for consumers and can lead patients to delay or forgo needed medications they cannot afford. Recent congressional negotiations have focused on policies to expand health insurance coverage and lower drug costs, including authorizing the negotiation of drug prices for people with Medicare and private health insurance, requiring rebates

December 1, 2021
Brief
 

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, city leaders are working to tackle structural inequities in access to wealth and opportunity. An infusion of federal dollars from the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act and American Rescue Plan Act provides an opportunity to rethink past budget choices. This brief describes how city leaders are integrating equity into revenue structures. Our review suggests that cities

December 1, 2021
Brief
 

In October 2018, the Mayor of San Francisco, in collaboration with Tipping Point Community, launched the Rising Up campaign to halve homelessness among people ages 18 to 24. To reach its goal, the program intended to provide rapid re-housing to 500 young people and prevent homelessness through problem-solving interventions for an additional 450.  We spoke with young people housed by the Rising Up program

December 1, 2021
Brief
 

In 2020 and 2021, with support from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation’s Safety and Justice Challenge Research Consortium, the Urban Institute conducted in-depth process and impact evaluations of Durham County, North Carolina’s Misdemeanor Diversion Program (MDP). The findings of the impact evaluation are detailed in this report. Our evaluation found that from March 2014 to February 2020, law

November 30, 2021
Research Report
 

In 2020 and 2021, with support from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation’s Safety and Justice Challenge Research Consortium, the Urban Institute conducted in-depth process and impact evaluations of Durham County, North Carolina’s Misdemeanor Diversion Program (MDP), the findings of which we summarize in this report. By conducting both types of evaluations, the research team was able to better

November 30, 2021
Brief
 

This brief offers a conceptual reframing of the Federal Housing Finance Agency’s new Equitable Housing Finance Plan (EHFP). The EHFP is the latest effort to ensure the GSEs fulfill their mission to serve low- and moderate-income families and underserved populations. The FHFA’s action is important to address homeownership disparities and to better serve future homebuyers, who will increasingly be people of color

November 29, 2021
Brief
 

The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) recently proposed three amendments to the Enterprise Regulatory Capital Framework that could encourage the transfer of mortgage credit risk from Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to private investors. These changes, however, are designed to address issues that have already arisen. That is, the leverage requirements plus the buffer are binding for Freddie Mac, and the credit

November 29, 2021
Brief
 

The November edition of At a Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing data, includes new figures describing origination volume/composition, securitization volume/composition, and mortgage insurance activity.

November 29, 2021
Research Report
 

Over the past 10 years, Sanctuary for Families, one of the largest victim service providers in New York City, has implemented a workforce development program called the Economic Empowerment Program that works exclusively with domestic violence survivors. From fall 2019 through summer 2020, we conducted an evaluation of this program. Our interim findings suggest that after four months of completing the required

November 24, 2021
Brief
 

Promise Neighborhoods is a cradle-to-career initiative dedicated to building supports that can help ensure educational and career success for all neighborhood youth. One of the program’s goals is to make sure high school graduates obtain a postsecondary degree, certificate, or credential. This brief offers five collective impact strategies for Promise Neighborhood grantees to drive greater postsecondary results

November 23, 2021
Brief
 

In 2020, the City Colleges of Chicago (CCC) began working with the Urban Institute to develop a picture of adult learners in Chicago. We developed a comprehensive definition of adult learners that guided specific data inquiries from publicly available American Community Survey data. In this data profile, we define an adult learner as: anyone who is 25 years or older, or anyone who is ages 18-24 but assumes an

November 23, 2021
Research Report
 

Data are a powerful tool for people to use to improve lives, strengthen families, and build communities of opportunity. But a lack of engagement with community members and people represented in state and local data systems has resulted in a lack of trust and rightful opposition to data efforts that are not transparent and inclusive. With a focus on building trust with communities for data use, the public and

November 23, 2021
Research Report
 

Rochester, NY has a once in a generation opportunity to invest the influx of funding coming through recent federal legislation towards an equitable and inclusive recovery. Ranking 241st out of 274 cities on overall inclusion before the pandemic, Rochester is a city where these funds have the potential to make a particularly tangible impact. Recovering inclusively entails overcoming economic and societal stress

November 22, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

The COVID-19 pandemic had devastating impacts on economies across the world. As the nation distributes exceptional levels of federal funding to recover from the crisis, cities have an unprecedented opportunity to pursue inclusive and equitable recoveries. Persistent disparities are associated with significant aggregate economic losses, costing cities millions of dollars in GDP growth. Communities of color,

November 22, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

As counties across the United States search for ways to reduce the oversized and racially disproportionate footprint of our criminal justice system, many are looking upstream—to housing and the evidence that connects it to economic stability and overall well-being. This report presents four approaches to housing programs and policies that show promise to reduce jail incarceration and address structural barriers

November 22, 2021
Research Report
 

More than 11 million people in the United States are Deaf, deaf, hard of hearing, late-deafened, or Deaf-Blind. Research indicates deaf people report experiencing victimization at higher rates, but a lack of accessible resources and trauma-informed services for American Sign Language speakers makes it difficult for deaf people to report crimes and access support. In response to these issues, the District

November 19, 2021
Brief
 

As part of the budget reconciliation discussions, Congress has considered expanding traditional Medicare to cover preventive dental, vision, and hearing services. Current proposals under the Build Back Better legislation would expand Medicare to cover hearing services for enrollees. In this brief, we describe current use of and spending on routine vision and hearing services among all Medicare beneficiaries and

November 19, 2021
Brief
 

By examining federal aid to state and local governments during the Great Recession, we draw lessons that can inform current state and local efforts to build an inclusive economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. We primarily compare the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 with the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, focusing on mechanisms to improve transparency and accountability and to center

November 19, 2021
Brief
 

Partnerships between child care providers and food access initiatives are a promising approach to supporting young children’s nutrition. In this brief, we drawing from examples of two such partnerships that received funding from the Walmart Healthier Food Access grant and highlight three promising strategies those partnerships employ: one that supports children and families directly, one that fosters the

November 18, 2021
Research Report