As part of the budget reconciliation discussions, Congress has considered expanding traditional Medicare to cover preventive dental, vision, and hearing services. Current proposals under the Build Back Better legislation would expand Medicare to cover hearing services for enrollees. In this brief, we describe current use of and spending on routine vision and hearing services among all Medicare beneficiaries and

November 19, 2021
Brief
 

By examining federal aid to state and local governments during the Great Recession, we draw lessons that can inform current state and local efforts to build an inclusive economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. We primarily compare the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 with the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, focusing on mechanisms to improve transparency and accountability and to center

November 19, 2021
Brief
 

Partnerships between child care providers and food access initiatives are a promising approach to supporting young children’s nutrition. In this brief, we drawing from examples of two such partnerships that received funding from the Walmart Healthier Food Access grant and highlight three promising strategies those partnerships employ: one that supports children and families directly, one that fosters the

November 18, 2021
Research Report
 

Federal tax data, derived from individuals' and businesses' tax and information returns, are invaluable resources for research on a range of topics. That research improves our understanding of individuals' and firms' responses to economic incentives. However, full access to these data is available only to select government agencies, to a very limited number of researchers working in collaboration with analysts

November 17, 2021
Research Report
 

Capital has flowed inequitably to communities across the US for decades, often with a racialized motivation or a racialized effect. This report analyzes investment flows in Milwaukee from 2005 to 2019, studying what kinds of money have been flowing, and for what purposes, into the city’s neighborhoods. The report builds on previous investment flow studies we have conducted in other cities, such as

November 17, 2021
Research Report
 

Public spending on children represents an effort to invest in the nation’s future by supporting children’s healthy development and human potential. To inform policymakers, children’s advocates, and the general public about how public funds are spent on children, this 15th edition of the annual Kids’ Share report provides an updated analysis of federal expenditures on children from 1960 to 2020. This year’s Kids

November 17, 2021
Research Report
 

Survey results covering two decades of planning policy trends in US cities show a decline in government-organized housing trust funds and a shift toward private market–reliant affordable housing tools such as inclusionary zoning and zoning incentives. The result may ultimately be less housing support for low- and moderate-income families in the communities that need it most. This brief leverages results of the

November 16, 2021
Brief
 

Brett Theodos, senior fellow, testified before the US House Ways and Means Committee’s Oversight Subcommittee on the current status of Opportunity Zones and options for their reform.  His testimony noted the manner in which Opportunity Zones have disadvantaged operating businesses, smaller and rural projects, and other mission-aligned projects that could deliver maximum community benefit across the country

November 16, 2021
Testimony
 

Framing is a crucial part of storytelling in all communications—from social media posts to long-form articles to funder presentations. Framing can determine how audiences interpret a message and whether the product achieves its goal. This brief summarizes a course presented by the FrameWorks Institute—in partnership with the US Department of Education and the Urban Institute, as part of the Promise Neighborhoods

November 15, 2021
Brief
 

President Biden’s proposed Build Back Better agenda would allow states to provide free school meals to all students, but the proposed reimbursement structure might discourage some states where child poverty is highest from enrolling. Build Back Better proposes to expand the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP) of the National School Lunch Program to the state level. Statewide expansion of CEP would allow

November 12, 2021
Brief
 

This paper provides estimates of the increase in federal subsidies under two provisions of the Build Back Better Act (BBBA) that would flow to people below the federal poverty limit in the 12 states that have not expanded Medicaid (people in the “Medicaid gap”). These subsidies are compared to the cuts in federal DSH payments also proposed in the bill. We estimate that in a year when Medicaid gap subsidies are

November 10, 2021
Brief
 

The pandemic-induced recession disproportionately affected people of color because of historic and ongoing structural racism—the policies and practices that have caused deep racial disparities in access to wealth-building opportunities and upward mobility. This brief presents a three-part framework in which local leaders can consider policy and programmatic directions for an inclusive recovery: (1) address

November 10, 2021
Brief
 

Transit agencies played an essential role in ensuring the mobility of Americans during the COVID-19 pandemic. Faced with a challenging environment, agencies operated buses and trains day in, day out, moving millions of people, especially essential workers who kept society going, even at the height of the health crisis. Even though agencies experienced a dramatic loss of riders during the pandemic, they were

November 9, 2021
Research Report
 

Diaper need—i.e., not having enough diapers to keep an infant or child clean, dry, and healthy—is a common problem that can impact children’s physical and developmental health, parent mental health, and family economic well-being. Home visitors can help alleviate diaper need because of their frequent interactions with families of young children. Home visiting programs can partner with local diaper banks to help

November 9, 2021
Brief
 

This brief summarizes opportunities, challenges, and steps required to expand home visiting services to support HBCC providers. It is one of a series of briefs on supporting HBCC provider participation in a number of federal programs and service systems. Based on interviews with experts and a brief literature review, we first describe the HBCC context and what home visiting is. Then, we explain the benefits of

November 9, 2021
Brief
 

Home-based child care (HBCC) providers support children’s development and help parents work. In 2019, slightly more than 1 million paid or listed home-based providers cared for 4.3 million children younger than 13. Despite their important role, however, many of these providers appear unlikely to participate in or benefit from public supports designed to help small businesses thrive, such as those from the Small

November 9, 2021
Brief
 

This brief provides an overview of opportunities, challenges, and steps needed to expand infant and early childhood mental health consultation (IECMHC) to support more home-based child care (HBCC) providers. It is one of a series of briefs on supporting HBCC providers’ participation in a number of federal programs or service systems. Based on interviews with experts and a review of the literature, we first

November 9, 2021
Brief
 

Home-based child care (HBCC) providers support children’s development and help parents work. In 2019, slightly more than 1 million paid or listed HBCC providers cared for 4.3 million children younger than age 13, and another 4 million unpaid HBCC providers cared for another 8 million children. Despite the important role these providers play, however, many appear unlikely to participate in or benefit from public

November 9, 2021
Brief
 

Renewed attention to environmental justice and the need for better evidence to inform policy call for investments in grassroots organizations. These organizations have been historically underresourced, resulting in capacity gaps across all levels of organizational type, geography, and environmental focus. Though accurate and inclusive data are central to achieving the missions of environmental justice

November 8, 2021
Research Report
 

Drug overdose deaths have soared during the COVID-19 pandemic; an estimated 99,106 occurred in the 12 months ending March 2021. Strong evidence shows that medication treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) is effective in reducing overdose deaths, with estimates showing 40 percent reductions in opioid overdose death within community programs. Yet medication treatment is in critically short supply in counties

November 8, 2021
Fact Sheet
 

A central feature of President Biden’s Build Back Better framework is a proposal to ensure that every child in the United States, if their family chooses to, can attend a public prekindergarten program starting at age 3. A look at the current state of prekindergarten shows that 80 percent of state-funded prekindergarten enrollees attended prekindergarten in a public elementary school building, and school-based

November 5, 2021
Brief
 

Young people in registered apprenticeship programs earn money while they learn and develop skills for a rewarding career. Although successful youth apprenticeship programs are partnerships between high schools, private-sector businesses, and intermediary organizations, only one organization leads or sponsors the program. This fact sheet outlines an apprenticeship model where high schools are sponsors and

November 4, 2021
Brief
 

The American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 (ARP) temporarily increased the child tax credit (CTC), made the credit fully refundable, and authorized the IRS to issue up to half the credit as an advance monthly payment beginning in July 2021. The IRS reports that nearly 61 million children received the payments in August 2021, which constitutes a large share of the target population but falls short of the estimated

November 4, 2021
Brief
 

In August 2021, the US Department of Agriculture announced a landmark development to the Thrifty Food Plan (TFP), changing the way benefits are determined for more than 42 million people using the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Beginning October 1, 2021, because of this change, the value of the maximum SNAP benefit increased 21 percent, and the TFP will be reevaluated every five years. In

November 2, 2021
Brief