Our extensive work on retirement policy covers the many ways the aging of America will trigger changes in how we work, retire, and spend federal resources.
The number of Americans age 65 and over will rise from about 13 percent in 2008 to 20 percent by 2040. The recession dealt a heavy blow to retirement accounts, leaving many older adults worried about their retirement security. Read more.
Personal finance for low- and middle-income families differs significantly from that of upper-income families, who tend to be the focus of mainstream finance. The assets of low- and middle-income families have less to do with stock and bond portfolios than they do with human capital, social insurance programs, and homeownership. Social welfare policy should be adjusted to acknowledge this reality.
These remarks were originally presented at the "The Future of Life-Cycle Saving and Investing" conference, co-sponsored by the Boston University School of Management, the Research Foundation of the CFA Institute, and the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston on May 24, 2011. It was first published in Life-Cycle Investing: Financial Education and Consumer Protection (November 2012): 85-96 (doi: 10.2470/rf.v2012.n3.7).
An increasing number of Americans are entering old age with outstanding debt, forcing many retirees to devote some income to servicing their debt and leaving them with less to cover daily living expenses. Using Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data, this brief reports that the share of adults ages 65 and older with outstanding debt increased from 30 to 46 percent between 1998 and 2010. The inflation-adjusted median value of debt grew 56 percent over the period and the average ratio of total household debt over total household assets more than doubled.
This study uses restricted microdata from the National Compensation Survey to examine the impact of autoenrollment on employee compensation. By boosting plan participation, automatic enrollment likely increases employer costs as previously unenrolled workers receive matching retirement plan contributions. Our data shows a significant negative correlation between employer match rates and autoenrollment. We find no evidence that total costs differ between firms with and without autoenrollment or that DC costs crowd out other forms of compensation-suggesting that firms might be lowering their match rates enough to completely offset the higher costs of autoenrollment without needing to reduce other compensation costs.
This data brief reports monthly labor force statistics for older Americans, a growing segment of the workforce. It reports labor force participation rates, unemployment rates, employment-to-population ratios, and the share of unemployed workers who have been out of work for more than six months. Employment outcomes did not change much in November 2012 for Americans ages 55 and older. Older workers continue to fare better than their younger counterparts, although older unemployed adults take longer to find work.
U.S. household economic instability, as measured by the Economic Security Index (ESI), fell 1.3 percentage points from 2010 (20.2 percent) to 2011 (18.9 percent), the largest year-over-year decline in the last quarter century. States in the west saw decreases in measured instability, while some central states saw increases in measured instability.
There is little evidence that the first of the baby boom generation or the retirees to follow are financially prepared for the risk of potentially catastrophic costs of disability-related long-term care. Both the high cost of insurance and uncertainty about its value are widely thought to account for the lack of preparedness. This chapter reviews evidence on the risk of long-term care, types of long-term care, financial risks, and consumer knowledge of these risks. Common and not-so-common options for private financing of long-term care and barriers to their widespread adoption are discussed. A final section briefly reviews policies in place or proposed for increasing private preparation.
The AARP Public Policy Institute, TIAA-CREF Institute, and Urban Institute invite you to join us for release and discussion of groundbreaking research on how consumers view guaranteed income options for their retirement savings and how they might make greater use of these options to improve their financial security.
These tables show how lifetime Medicare benefits net of premiums vary based on three sets of assumptions. Two estimates are presented using current law assumptions, as is presented in the 2012 Medicare Trustees Report and the National Health Expenditure Accounts. A third estimate is based on an alternative scenario by CMS in which scheduled cuts in benefit payment rates are not implemented and productivity adjustments required under the Affordable Care Act are not fully achieved.
These tables update previous estimates of the lifetime value of Social Security and Medicare benefits and taxes for typical workers in different generations at various earning levels based on new estimates of the Social Security Actuary. The "lifetime value of taxes" is based upon the value of accumulated taxes, as if those taxes were put into an account that earned a 2 percent real rate of return (that is, 2 percent plus inflation). The "lifetime value of benefits" represents the amount needed in an account (also earning a 2 percent real interest rate) to pay for those benefits. All amounts are presented in constant 2012 dollars.