The dependent exemption reduces taxable income by a fixed amount ($3,650 in 2010) for each qualifying child in the family. Benefits depend on a family's marginal tax rate. Low-income families receive a tax reduction of up to $365 per exemption compared to high income families that receive a tax reduction of $1,278 per exemption. Benefits flow mostly to families with relatively high incomes. In 2010, TPC estimates 1.5 percent of benefits will accrue to families in the lowest income quintile while 57.1 percent of benefits will accrue to families in the top 40 percent of the income distribution.