Information on the role of Medicaid is once again taking center stage as federal and state policymakers debate how to address budget deficits and states consider next steps in extending coverage to their low-income populations. Using the Medicaid Expenditure Panel Survey, Urban researchers examine the use and cost of health care among low-income nonelderly adults who are covered by Medicaid relative to their expected service use and costs if they instead had employer-sponsored insurance coverage or were uninsured. Consistent with previous work, the analysis demonstrates that Medicaid provides access to health care services comparable to that of ESI but at significantly lower costs. Also, compared to ESI coverage direct out-of-pocket spending for health care services would be three times higher if Medicaid beneficiaries were instead covered by ESI. The analysis also confirms the better access and financial protection Medicaid beneficiaries have over their uninsured counterparts.