Most TANF recipients have at least one barrier to work, and many have multiple barriers. The likelihood of work declines as the number of barriers increases. This brief summarizes the strategies that states use to help TANF recipients with barriers to employment. It reviews the limited research evidence on the short- and long-term effects of employment-focused and treatment-focused interventions. It draws implications for policy, including recommendations for more effective screening and assessment, faster resolution of applications for disability benefits and the need for case management and broad support services.