Across the country, communities are working to end homelessness by investing in Housing First approaches that help families and single adults get back into permanent housing. Until recently, many of these communities were reducing homelessness. Today, the housing crisis and economic recession threatens progress and puts millions of Americans at risk of homelessness. Many expect the homeless numbers to swell-and some communities are already reporting sharp increases, particularly among families. This brief examines the current state of homelessness, how community responses are changing, what is working, and, most important, what policymakers should be doing to move forward, not backward.