Of the nearly 11 million fathers in the United States who do not live with their kids, about 7 million do not pay formal child support. Of these unpaying fathers, 2.5 million are poor themselves. Poor moms and dads face similar barriers to employment -- limited education, lack of recent work experience, and health barriers. They work about the same number of hours each year and have similar earnings. But poor fathers -- even those who pay child support -- do not have access to most work support programs. The author recommends making the work support programs that are available to poor mothers available to poor fathers who pay child support.