About 2.5 million New Yorkers were uninsured in 2005, and medical providers that serve them incurred some $2.8 billion in uncompensated care. Two separate analyses in this report agreed on this estimate, one using provider cost reports and the other household survey data. Budgetary and other sources showed that state, local, and federal governments supplied about $3.5 billion in revenues that offset these costs, through a complex mix of programs. If these uninsured people had all had insurance for the full year, their projected medical spending would have been higher by about $4.1 billion. Any insurance expansion program would incur these and additional costs as well.