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Race, Ethnicity, Gender

 
Multi EthnicUrban Institute researchers examine gender inequalities, racial segregation, and the mutually reinforcing disparities they cause in education, housing, employment, income, and health care.

Our experts analyze race and gender gaps in student test scores, measure unequal treatment toward minorities in the housing market, and study the persistent discrimination that feeds wealth and income gaps. We also probe the unique challenges of single mothers, noncustodial fathers, and hard-to-employ young men—and evaluate the public and private programs designed to help them.

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Understanding the Organization, Operation, and Victimization Process of Labor Trafficking in the United States (Research Report)
Colleen Owens, Meredith Dank, Amy Farrell, Justin Breaux, Isela Banuelos, Rebecca Pfeffer, Ryan Heitsmith, Katie Bright, Jack McDevitt

This study chronicles the experiences of labor trafficking victims from the point of recruitment for work, their forced labor victimization, their attempts to escape and get help, and their efforts to seek justice through civil or criminal cases. The report finds that legal loopholes and lax enforcement enable labor traffickers to commit crimes against workers in major US industries: agriculture, domestic work, hotels, restaurants, and construction. Interview and case file data detail the ubiquity of trafficking, which occurs both in plain sight and behind lock and key. Detailed recommendations propose next steps for policy and practice.

Posted to Web: October 21, 2014Publication Date: October 21, 2014

Lax Enforcement and Legal Loopholes Enable Labor Trafficking Victimization: Broadest look ever at victim experiences in five major US industries (Press Release)
Urban Institute

This study chronicles the experiences of labor trafficking victims from the point of recruitment for work, their forced labor victimization, their attempts to escape and get help, and their efforts to seek justice through civil or criminal cases. The report finds that legal loopholes and lax enforcement enable labor traffickers to commit crimes against workers in major US industries: agriculture, domestic work, hotels, restaurants, and construction. Interview and case file data detail the ubiquity of trafficking, which occurs both in plain sight and behind lock and key. Detailed recommendations propose next steps for policy and practice.

Posted to Web: October 21, 2014Publication Date: October 21, 2014

Stop and Frisk: Balancing Crime Control with Community Relations (Research Report)
Nancy G. La Vigne, Pamela Lachman, Shebani Rao, Andrea Matthews

Police have been stopping, questioning, and frisking pedestrians for decades in an effort to protect themselves and the public from harm. However, pedestrians may view the stop and frisk experience as unjustified and perceive that they are subject to unfair and overly aggressive treatment. These feelings are most pronounced for those residing in high-crime areas that are targets for intensive stop and frisk activities. Because citizens’ views of the police contribute to their willingness to cooperate with and empower law enforcement, minimizing the negative effects of stop and frisk is crucial for overall police effectiveness and is especially important for improving relations with communities of color. This publication discusses the constitutionality and legal precedents of stop and frisk and the theory and practice behind these street stops. This background is followed by a discus¬sion of stop and frisk’s unintended consequences and a series of practical recommendations for the lawful and respectful use of pedestrian stops in the context of community policing.

Posted to Web: October 15, 2014Publication Date: October 15, 2014

Immigrant Youth Outcomes: Patterns by Generation and Race and Ethnicity (Research Report)
Maria E. Enchautegui

This report compares immigrant and nonimmigrant youth along 40 indicators of wellbeing, making comparisons by generation and by race and ethnicity. Immigrant youth are born abroad or born in the United States of foreign-born parents. In most outcomes examined, immigrant youth become more similar to nonimmigrants across successive generations, but inequalities persist in most outcomes. Analysis by race and ethnicity show a U turn in third generation Latinos as differentials that had been reduced or that had disappeared by the second generation reemerge or increase by the third generation.

Posted to Web: September 23, 2014Publication Date: September 23, 2014

Factors that Influence Preventive Service Utilization among Children Covered by Medicaid and CHIP: Environmental Scan and Literature Review (Research Report)
Vanessa C. Forsberg, Rebecca Peters, Amanda I. Napoles, Arnav Shah, Christal Ramos, Kelly J. Devers

This environmental scan report compiles and assesses the available literature from the last 5 years on preventive health care services for child beneficiaries (including adolescents) in Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP). It addresses preventive service utilization patterns and barriers, cost and health outcomes associated with prevention, and activities designed to improve preventive service rates and outcomes. This report is intended to help inform the development and dissemination of resources for states to use in their efforts to increase the utilization of recommended preventive services by Medicaid and CHIP beneficiaries.

Posted to Web: September 17, 2014Publication Date: April 15, 2014

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