The Great Lakes region—home to 50 million people in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin—has become a fixture in our national political discourse. Many of the country’s social, economic, and political challenges are being played out here. Despite a decade of job loss, demographic shifts, and falling household incomes, evidence suggests the area has strong foundations capable of sustaining future growth and

March 23, 2017
Research Report
 

These fact sheets are companions to the Future of the Great Lakes Region report that provides a comprehensive analysis of recent economic, demographic, and social trends in the region, coupled with projections on how those trends will play out in the future. These six fact sheets highlight economic and demographic trends particularly salient for each of the states in the region (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and

March 23, 2017
Brief
 

These fact sheets are companions to the Future of the Great Lakes Region report that provides a comprehensive analysis of recent economic, demographic, and social trends in the region, coupled with projections on how those trends will play out in the future. These six fact sheets highlight economic and demographic trends particularly salient for each of the states in the region (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and

March 23, 2017
Brief
 

These fact sheets are companions to the Future of the Great Lakes Region report that provides a comprehensive analysis of recent economic, demographic, and social trends in the region, coupled with projections on how those trends will play out in the future. These six fact sheets highlight economic and demographic trends particularly salient for each of the states in the region (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and

March 23, 2017
Brief
 

These fact sheets are companions to the Future of the Great Lakes Region report that provides a comprehensive analysis of recent economic, demographic, and social trends in the region, coupled with projections on how those trends will play out in the future. These six fact sheets highlight economic and demographic trends particularly salient for each of the states in the region (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and

March 23, 2017
Brief
 

These fact sheets are companions to the Future of the Great Lakes Region report that provides a comprehensive analysis of recent economic, demographic, and social trends in the region, coupled with projections on how those trends will play out in the future. These six fact sheets highlight economic and demographic trends particularly salient for each of the states in the region (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and

March 23, 2017
Brief
 

These fact sheets are companions to the Future of the Great Lakes Region report that provides a comprehensive analysis of recent economic, demographic, and social trends in the region, coupled with projections on how those trends will play out in the future. These six fact sheets highlight economic and demographic trends particularly salient for each of the states in the region (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and

March 23, 2017
Brief
 

Congress is currently considering passage of the American Health Care Act (AHCA). This bill would repeal large portions of the Affordable Care Act, including most of its sources of revenue, and would introduce significant changes to the Medicaid program and the private nongroup insurance market. We use the Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center Microsimulation Model and The Urban Institute Health Policy Center’s Health Insurance

March 22, 2017
Brief
 

The March 2017 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing the size of the mortgage market, mortgage origination product type composition, latest agency issuance activities, and a special quarterly feature on GSE loan composition, repurchase rates, defaults, and loss severity.

March 21, 2017
Research Report
 

In this paper, we analyze the effect of two per capita cap approaches: that in the AHCA and that in Speaker of the House Paul Ryan’s “Better Way” health care plan, released in June 2016. We estimate the effect of each of these per capita caps on federal and state spending from 2019 to 2028. We estimate that between 2019 and 2028, the Better Way proposal would reduce federal Medicaid spending by $841 billion, or 18.1 percent. The

March 20, 2017
Research Report
 

Policymakers looking to reduce the abuse of prescription opioids face difficult decisions in selecting which of the many interventions will best fit their jurisdictions. This brief outlines a five-step process decision-makers should apply to incorporate data and evaluation into the formation and implementation of policy: create a logic model, identify data sources, collect data, analyze data to identify and solve implementation

March 17, 2017
Brief
 

Owning a home has long been a meaningful milestone for many Americans. But as the recovering economy continues to drive up home prices and lending standards remain tight, many renters view homeownership as unattainable. Fortunately, there is more than one way to purchase a home. One method, shared equity, allows low- and moderate-income families to purchase homes at below-market prices. In return for the subsidized purchase

March 16, 2017
Research Report
 

Restorative justice provides a possible alternative to exclusionary responses (e.g., suspension) to student misbehavior. A set of schools in Rhode Island is testing one restorative justice approach, family group conferencing with misbehaving students. This report concerns the first year of implementation. This report finds that, over the first year of implementation, family conferencing requires a consistent referral process,

March 16, 2017
Research Report
 

Narrow provider networks are increasingly common in the individual health insurance market. Regardless of what system emerges from efforts to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act, insurers are expected to continue to rely on narrow provider networks. The new administration has proposed to loosen federal network adequacy standards and delegate more authority to states. This paper examines how four states with significant

March 16, 2017
Research Report
 

The Rockefeller Foundation’s Resilience Academies and Capacity-Building Initiative was designed to support the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s National Disaster Resilience Competition. This initiative provided intensive regional workshops to more than 50 eligible jurisdictions that experienced Presidentially Declared Disasters between 2011 and 2013.  The Rockefeller Foundation partnered with

March 15, 2017
Research Report
 

This brief estimates the prevalence of, perceptions about, and reported effects of unplanned births among reproductive-age women in 2016. About one third of all women and six in ten women who had given birth reported experiencing an unplanned birth. Most women perceived unplanned births to have negative effects on a woman’s life, particularly her socioeconomic well-being. Negative perceptions were more common among white women,

March 9, 2017
Brief
 

In this paper, Dr. Goodman explains how she has determined that access to mortgages is extraordinarily tight and then evaluates the policy actions taken to date by regulators to ease mortgage access. She concludes that the actions taken by the government-sponsored enterprises have been much more successful than those taken by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). Dr. Goodman explains that if we don’t expand access to FHA

March 9, 2017
Working Paper
 

Because of decades of disinvestment, population loss, and exclusionary housing policies, Detroit’s housing market experienced distress well before the housing market collapse and Great Recession. A healthy housing market is an important component of a healthy city. It enables residents to build wealth and respond to opportunities, gives cities resources to provide its residents services, and fosters community by supporting a

March 6, 2017
Research Report
 

Medicaid has historically paid physicians lower fees than Medicare for the same services. The Affordable Care Act included a mandatory two-year increase in fees for primary care services to Medicare levels to address concerns about the effects of low reimbursement on access to care for Medicaid beneficiaries. As of 2016, 19 states have continued this fee bump in some form with state funds, suggesting that even a temporary

March 5, 2017
Research Report
 

A national scan of practice among law enforcement agencies across the United States reveals that they use social media to notify the public of safety concerns, manage public relations, and gather evidence for criminal investigations. The Urban Institute and the International Association of Chiefs of Police partnered to develop a comprehensive understanding of law enforcement’s use of social media. A total of 539 agencies

March 3, 2017
Research Report
 

Criminal background checks continue to be a routine practice among many employers in the United States. According to a recent survey, almost 60 percent of employers screen job applicants for their criminal histories. Despite their prevalence, criminal background checks often generate flawed or incomplete reports, with some reports failing to include conviction information. Such flaws may undermine the value of the screenings to

March 1, 2017
Brief
 

The Empowering Patients First bill is one of several congressional proposals to replace the ACA’s income-related refundable tax credits with age-related tax credits. We use actuarial analysis to estimate the type of insurance plans that individuals of different ages could purchase in 2016 using only the tax credit that would have been available to them had this bill been enacted. A 25 percent actuarial value plan is the most

March 1, 2017
Brief
 

Medical debt is one of the most common forms of debt in collections. Consumers can mitigate this risk, but they need to know about effective strategies. Using the National Financial Capability Study, we estimate that nonelderly adults who answer four or five questions correctly on a five-question financial knowledge quiz are 7 percentage points less likely to have past-due medical debt than similar people who answer zero or one

March 1, 2017
Brief
 

This brief provides the first state-level estimates of the share of nonelderly adults reporting medical bills that are past due, drawing on data from the 2012 and 2015 National Financial Capability Study. Past-due medical debt is common: 23.8 percent of nonelderly adults reported past-due medical debt in 2015, down 5.8 percentage points from 2012. Past-due medical debt varies considerably across states in both years, with the

March 1, 2017
Brief