Income volatility may complicate tax filing and predicting eligibility for critical tax benefits, such as the earned income tax credit. Half of all working-age adults¬—and 64 percent of low-income, working-age adults—have household income that for at least one month of the year will spike above or dip below 25 percent of their average monthly income. Nearly 40 percent of low-income, working-age adults have household income that

May 24, 2017
Research Report
 

The May 2017 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing originator profitability, first-time homebuyer share, mortgage delinquency rates, and the composition of the mortgage insurance market.

May 24, 2017
Research Report
 

National health expenditures have been growing in recent years at about the rate of increase in gross domestic product (GDP) plus 1 percent, following decades of growth at GDP plus 2.5 percent. In this brief the authors discuss a number of reasons for the slowdown, including contributions made by the ACA. The authors also discuss reasons for the growth in marketplace premiums, finding that states with rapid growth rates

May 24, 2017
Brief
 

The effectiveness of policies to encourage people to prefund future expenses for long-term services and supports (LTSS), such as creating dedicated savings accounts or contributory LTSS financing programs, depends on how many financial resources older adults with LTSS needs have earlier in life. This study finds that older adults who develop serious disabilities before age 80 and those with extended nursing home stays have

May 24, 2017
Research Report
 

The Census Bureau has been developing administrative records-based solutions to reduce the decennial census’ cost, which they plan to use in 2020. However, the implications of these new approaches are still unclear for vulnerable subpopulations who may be misrepresented by administrative data. This report discusses the Census Bureau’s plan for using administrative records in the 2020 Census, potential implications and concerns

May 23, 2017
Research Report
 

This guide encourages community stakeholders to organize events around the 500 Cities data—27 indicators of adult health status, unhealthy behaviors, and prevention available at the census-tract level for 500 of America’s largest cities . Building on the success of a national convening sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) in December 2016, the suggestions here focus on engaging diverse audiences, learning about

May 23, 2017
Research Report
 

To launch the 500 Cities Project data release, on December 6 and 7, 2016, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) funded and organized an evening reception and day-long conference in Dallas, Texas, cohosted along with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the CDC Foundation. The purpose of the meeting was to introduce the new dataset, explore potential uses, and foster cross-sector collaboration. The 500

May 23, 2017
Research Report
 

Increased receipt of buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) under Medicaid could improve outcomes for those with OUD in Medicaid expansion states residents for relapse, retention in OUD treatment, involvement in the justice system, health, and mortality. Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), many low-income adults with OUD in the 32 states (including DC) that expanded Medicaid gained access to buprenorphine, which

May 22, 2017
Research Report
 

The Juvenile Justice Reform and Reinvestment Initiative (JJRRI) aimed to reform juvenile justice through the use of evidence-based tools: risk assessment, dispositional matrices, and the SPEPTM system for rating program effectiveness. In combination, these tools were envisioned to improve dispositional decisions, reduce disparities, and drive continuous quality improvement in services.  Implementation proved slower than hoped,

May 18, 2017
Research Report
 

Denver is experiencing rapid population growth and economic success, which has led to rising housing costs that make the city cost-prohibitive to longtime residents and newcomers alike. This is especially the case for low- and middle-income (LMI) households who make too much for subsidies and too little to pay market prices. Through a data-rich analysis of population and housing market changes in the last 15 years, we identify

May 18, 2017
Research Report
 

To see an executive summary click here. In this brief, we provide an estimate of government and household health care costs for high-risk pools under the American Health Care Act (AHCA). We use two levels of coverage and household subsidies (one similar to that under the Affordable Care Act and one more typical of traditional high-risk pools) and two options for identifying the population eligible for a high-risk pool (one that

May 18, 2017
Brief
 

This report is part of an evolving body of work informing the US Partnership on Mobility from Poverty. A core American ideal is that all children should have a clear pathway to thrive and prosper as adults. Yet, children in poverty—particularly children who are persistently poor—face steep obstacles on their path to economic success. Today, nearly 9 million children in the United States (11.8 percent) will grow up in

May 18, 2017
Research Report
 

Using the 2013-2015 American Community Survey, this brief finds improvements for both parents and children in uninsurance, Medicaid/CHIP participation, and the number who are eligible for Medicaid/CHIP but not enrolled. Uninsurance fell nationally and in nearly every state, and the number of eligible but uninsured children fell to 2.1 million – declining by over half since 2008. Children’s participation reached 93.1 percent in

May 17, 2017
Brief
 

This paper compares tax credits offered through the Affordable Care Act (ACA) with those in the American Health Care Act (AHCA). They examined the premium levels in 10 cities, five of which have relatively low premiums and five of which have relatively high premiums. The authors find that younger people typically receive larger insurance premium tax credits under the AHCA, while older adults typically receive larger premium tax

May 17, 2017
Research Report
 

With an increasing federal share in the funding of higher education comes motivation and responsibility for monitoring quality and outcomes, raising questions about how federal and state governments should work together. There are good arguments for the federal government to provide states stronger incentives to strengthen and better target their funding and to diminish gaps in educational opportunities across states. But, there

May 16, 2017
Brief
 

Lessons from federal-state partnerships in other public policy areas might inform efforts to strengthen the partnership in higher education. This paper looks to the forms of cooperation between these levels of government in transportation, housing, and elementary through secondary education as examples. The federal role should have clearly defined goals, including strengthening the social norm of equitable access to high quality

May 16, 2017
Research Report
 

Differences in institutional structures and funding models combine with economic and demographic differences to create sharp variation in the educational opportunities available to students across the nation. This paper examines the range of higher education funding levels and processes both across and within states. State policies sometimes reinforce national goals, but sometimes work at cross-purposes, diminishing the

May 16, 2017
Research Report
 

The range of missions and structures of public higher education institutions in the United States raises questions about whether the federal-state partnership should take the same form throughout the nation. For example, the federal government’s role in research universities might differ from its role in community colleges. This paper focuses on variation across and within states and on the conceptual grounding for the growing

May 16, 2017
Research Report
 

The Trump administration and House Republicans are developing proposals that would reduce the individual income tax rate on income earned through pass-through entities such as sole proprietorships, partnerships, and S-corporations. To analyze the impact of reducing the individual income tax rate on pass-through income, we use TPC’s microsimulation model of the federal tax system to estimate the revenue and distributional effects

May 15, 2017
Brief
 

Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs) are US Treasury–certified financial institutions devoted to ensuring all people and communities have access to the investment capital and financial services they need to prosper. To do their work, CDFIs need debt and equity to lend and invest. They also need funding to support organizational capacity and innovation, to meet lenders’ and regulators’ requirements, and for the

May 11, 2017
Brief
 

Long used to tracking outputs (e.g., charter school seats financed, small businesses capitalized, affordable housing units funded) community development financial institutions (CDFIs) face increasing demands to document the outcomes, or results, of their investments. CDFIs, a mix of nondepository and depository financial institutions, are embracing measurement for more than compliance and funder reporting and are using

May 11, 2017
Brief
 

This analysis finds that marketplace health insurance premium levels and premium growth directly correlate with the number of insurers participating in a given rating region. Median monthly benchmark premiums range from $270 in markets with six or more insurers to $451 in markets with just one insurer in 2017. Likewise, in regions with 6 or more insurers, the median 2017 benchmark premium increase was 5.0% compared to 29.8% in

May 10, 2017
Brief
 

Fannie Mae recently completed the first ever GSE securitization of single family rental (SFR) properties owned by an institutional investor for Invitation Homes, one of the largest institutional players in the SFR business. This paper analyzes the completed deal, examining key structural aspects and the need for this type of financing. The paper also discusses affordability aspects of the deal and urges the Federal Housing

May 10, 2017
Brief
 

With both Republicans and Democrats talking about paid family leave, the time is ripe for a new national policy. This brief shows that the current patchwork of public and private policies does not meet the needs of working mothers. Positive outcomes from paid family leave are emerging from three existing state programs. Yet, policy choices must be made to refine and implement a national program of paid family leave. Who should

May 10, 2017
Brief