Over the past six years, 17 local jurisdictions across the country have implemented policies to reduce their jail populations and costs, improve public safety, and increase the efficiency of their justice system. Through the Justice Reinvestment Initiative, sites implemented policies to address frequent front-end users, improve pretrial strategies, apply evidence-based practices in community supervision, and enhance data systems

August 18, 2016
Brief
 

We know little about how early work experience influences adult outcomes for high school dropouts. This brief reports on how these early workers fare compared with youth who drop out but don’t go to work and youth who complete high school. Although early workers are twice as likely to be employed at age 25 as youth who drop out without working, dropouts who were employed at age 25 work roughly the same number of hours and have

August 18, 2016
Brief
 

We know little about how early work experience influences adult outcomes for high school dropouts. This brief reports on how these early workers fare compared with youth who drop out but don’t go to work and youth who complete high school. Although early workers are twice as likely to be employed at age 25 as youth who drop out without working, dropouts who were employed at age 25 work roughly the same number of hours and have

August 18, 2016
Brief
 

Differences among community colleges present challenges for national policies that promote student access and success. Tuition is a significant barrier in some places but is covered for disadvantaged students elsewhere. Traditional success metrics carry different meanings depending on an institution’s mission, student body, and other factors. Preparing students to transfer to four-year colleges is a central mission for some

August 18, 2016
Brief
 

Pay for success (PFS) projects offer governments opportunities to invest in outcomes and employ new capital to meet the needs of their communities. But PFS projects also carry risks. For investors, the risks relate to the project failing to meet its outcomes or the government reneging on its commitment to pay. Investors’ perceptions of risk matter. Projects with high or unclear risk may discourage investors and prevent the

August 18, 2016
Brief
 

Evaluations are a key feature of pay for success (PFS) projects, and rigorous evaluation designs are important for building the evidence base of effective programs by determining whether a project’s outcomes can be attributed to the program. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the most rigorous evaluation design and give us the best approximation for what would have happened without the program. However, PFS

August 10, 2016
Brief
 

We analyze the 19 states that have not expanded Medicaid. From 2017 to 2026, expansion in these states would increase nominal state costs by less than $60 billion while increasing federal funding by more than $400 billion. Each new state dollar would draw down between $7 and $8 in additional federal dollars. We were not able to estimate offsetting state revenue gains and full state cost savings. Every broad fiscal review

August 9, 2016
Brief
 

Understanding long-range trends in longevity and disability is useful for projecting the likely impact of the baby boom generation on long-term care utilization and spending. We examine changes in active life expectancy in the United States from 1982 to 2011 for white and black adults ages 65 and older. For whites, longevity increased, disability was postponed to older ages, the locus of care shifted from nursing facilities to

August 8, 2016
Article
 

Many Americans will develop health problems as they age and need assistance with everyday activities. Private long-term care insurance could protect them from high out-of-pocket costs if they need paid assistance at home or in nursing or assisted-living facilities. Yet, only 11 percent of adults ages 65 and older had coverage in 2014, including only 25 percent of those worth at least $1 million and who would benefit most from

August 2, 2016
Brief
 

A new public park for Washington, DC, is spurring collaboration between neighbors and planners to ensure benefits for all. Once completed, the District’s 11th Street Bridge Park will connect the relatively affluent communities surrounding Capitol Hill on the west bank to the much less well-off Anacostia neighborhood on the east bank. The project offers an interesting case study on whether and how local communities can reap the

July 27, 2016
Research Report
 

The July 2016 edition of At a Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing housing credit availability, first-time homebuyer share, government-sponsored enterprise risk-sharing transactions, and latest modification activities.

July 27, 2016
Research Report
 

States spend billions of dollars every year on economic development activities that range from recruiting new businesses to helping local businesses expand. At the heart of each state’s economic development strategy is an agency, department, or government-supported nonprofit that coordinates the state’s efforts. More than mere boosters, state economic development agencies (EDAs) are tasked with supporting existing businesses,

July 27, 2016
Brief
 

Since the early 1970s, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) has used the Transfer Income Model (TRIM) to assess how social welfare programs affect family incomes and poverty. The Urban Institute has maintained, developed, and used the model under a series of contracts with ASPE. Today’s version of TRIM, TRIM3, simulates over a dozen benefit and tax programs, including detailed cross-program

July 26, 2016
Research Report
 

Relaxing Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) asset limits through broad-based categorical eligibility increases low-income households’ savings (8 percent more likely to have at least $500) and participation in mainstream financial markets (5 percent more likely to have a bank account); it also reduces SNAP churn (26 percent). Taken together, relaxed asset limits increase households’ financial security and stability

July 26, 2016
Brief
 

Rising student debt is an important topic for academics and policymakers, but we know little about loans that finance a family member’s education expenses. This study shows that 7 percent of Americans ages 25 to 55 have taken on debt to finance their child’s or grandchild’s education. In addition, we find that while blacks are substantially more likely to obtain debt for their own education, there are no systematic racial

July 25, 2016
Brief
 

This report summarizes evidence on family intervention strategies for youth experiencing or at risk of homelessness, gathered through a literature review and conversations with a few key informants. Research has uncovered a few effective family intervention strategies that provide insight into what makes these strategies successful, but more research is needed to evaluate those targeted to youth experiencing or at risk of

July 22, 2016
Research Report
 

Substantially increasing mobility from poverty means different things to different people. Some goals for reducing poverty and increasing mobility may sound ambitious but fall well within historical experience, while others may require levels of economic growth or redistribution that are beyond all precedent. This paper considers different ways to think about mobility from poverty, shows differences in poverty and mobility over

July 21, 2016
Brief
 

Data play an integral role in pay for success (PFS) projects. Knowing the kinds of data needed for a successful project, how to collect them, and how they should be used may seem straightforward. But the complexity of early childhood outcome measures and data systems can create challenges.

July 20, 2016
Research Report
 

Setting and pricing outcomes are important steps of every pay for success (PFS) project because they allow partners to quantify the benefits of successful programs. This report describe the types of early childhood education (ECE) outcomes that might be used to establish repayments and offers guidance on how the partners in a PFS project might select an outcome, a measure, and a definition of success that is appropriate for the

July 20, 2016
Research Report
 

Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) loans have been considered senior to the claim on the first mortgage. FHFA and FHA have had reservations about insuring or guaranteeing mortgages on homes with a PACE loan, which has limited PACE product use. On July 19, 2016, FHA and VA clarified how and when it would finance a home with a PACE loan: the lien must be subordinated but could travel with the property. This note explains why

July 20, 2016
Note
 

Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), states can expand Medicaid eligibility for nonelderly adults up to 138 percent of the federal poverty level (FPL). As of May 2016, 19 states had not expanded Medicaid. We estimate that another 4.8 million uninsured people would gain Medicaid eligibility if the remaining states were to expand Medicaid. If all of the 19 remaining states were to expand Medicaid in 2017, we project that the

July 20, 2016
Brief
 

To understand the US Interagency Council on Homelessness’s (USICH’s) role in the nation’s efforts to end homelessness and potential effects of the agency’s planned termination in 2017, we interviewed more than 40 federal and local stakeholders across the public, private, and nonprofit sectors. Tasked with coordinating the federal response to homelessness, USICH is perceived as uniquely positioned to help federal, state, and

July 18, 2016
Brief
 

Drawing from a wide range of data and sources, the Q2 2016 Detroit Housing Tracker monitors the latest developments in Detroit housing and community development. Updated quarterly, this publication has two sections. Detroit Housing Market Trends presents comprehensive market indicators, including sales prices and volumes, rental prices, household equity level, delinquencies and foreclosures, and general labor market conditions.

July 15, 2016
Brief
 

This study uses data on 13 European countries to estimate the net value of transfers between parents and adult children and to determine the relationship of the net value of family transfers with public intergenerational transfers. The results suggest that the needs of parents and children and their ability to provide support are important determinants of the flow of net transfers between parents and children. Public

July 14, 2016
Journal Article