The March 2017 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing the size of the mortgage market, mortgage origination product type composition, latest agency issuance activities, and a special quarterly feature on GSE loan composition, repurchase rates, defaults, and loss severity.
In this paper, we analyze the effect of two per capita cap approaches: that in the AHCA and that in Speaker of the House Paul Ryan’s “Better Way” health care plan, released in June 2016. We estimate the effect of each of these per capita caps on federal and state spending from 2019 to 2028. We estimate that between 2019 and 2028, the Better Way proposal would reduce federal Medicaid spending by $841 billion, or 18.1 percent. The
Policymakers looking to reduce the abuse of prescription opioids face difficult decisions in selecting which of the many interventions will best fit their jurisdictions. This brief outlines a five-step process decision-makers should apply to incorporate data and evaluation into the formation and implementation of policy: create a logic model, identify data sources, collect data, analyze data to identify and solve implementation
Owning a home has long been a meaningful milestone for many Americans. But as the recovering economy continues to drive up home prices and lending standards remain tight, many renters view homeownership as unattainable. Fortunately, there is more than one way to purchase a home. One method, shared equity, allows low- and moderate-income families to purchase homes at below-market prices. In return for the subsidized purchase
Restorative justice provides a possible alternative to exclusionary responses (e.g., suspension) to student misbehavior. A set of schools in Rhode Island is testing one restorative justice approach, family group conferencing with misbehaving students. This report concerns the first year of implementation. This report finds that, over the first year of implementation, family conferencing requires a consistent referral process,
Narrow provider networks are increasingly common in the individual health insurance market. Regardless of what system emerges from efforts to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act, insurers are expected to continue to rely on narrow provider networks. The new administration has proposed to loosen federal network adequacy standards and delegate more authority to states. This paper examines how four states with significant
The Rockefeller Foundation’s Resilience Academies and Capacity-Building Initiative was designed to support the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s National Disaster Resilience Competition. This initiative provided intensive regional workshops to more than 50 eligible jurisdictions that experienced Presidentially Declared Disasters between 2011 and 2013. The Rockefeller Foundation partnered with
This essay compares the three most prominent housing finance reform proposals within a single, simple framework.
This brief estimates the prevalence of, perceptions about, and reported effects of unplanned births among reproductive-age women in 2016. About one third of all women and six in ten women who had given birth reported experiencing an unplanned birth. Most women perceived unplanned births to have negative effects on a woman’s life, particularly her socioeconomic well-being. Negative perceptions were more common among white women,
In this paper, Dr. Goodman explains how she has determined that access to mortgages is extraordinarily tight and then evaluates the policy actions taken to date by regulators to ease mortgage access. She concludes that the actions taken by the government-sponsored enterprises have been much more successful than those taken by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). Dr. Goodman explains that if we don’t expand access to FHA
Because of decades of disinvestment, population loss, and exclusionary housing policies, Detroit’s housing market experienced distress well before the housing market collapse and Great Recession. A healthy housing market is an important component of a healthy city. It enables residents to build wealth and respond to opportunities, gives cities resources to provide its residents services, and fosters community by supporting a
Medicaid has historically paid physicians lower fees than Medicare for the same services. The Affordable Care Act included a mandatory two-year increase in fees for primary care services to Medicare levels to address concerns about the effects of low reimbursement on access to care for Medicaid beneficiaries. As of 2016, 19 states have continued this fee bump in some form with state funds, suggesting that even a temporary
A national scan of practice among law enforcement agencies across the United States reveals that they use social media to notify the public of safety concerns, manage public relations, and gather evidence for criminal investigations. The Urban Institute and the International Association of Chiefs of Police partnered to develop a comprehensive understanding of law enforcement’s use of social media. A total of 539 agencies
Criminal background checks continue to be a routine practice among many employers in the United States. According to a recent survey, almost 60 percent of employers screen job applicants for their criminal histories. Despite their prevalence, criminal background checks often generate flawed or incomplete reports, with some reports failing to include conviction information. Such flaws may undermine the value of the screenings to
The Empowering Patients First bill is one of several congressional proposals to replace the ACA’s income-related refundable tax credits with age-related tax credits. We use actuarial analysis to estimate the type of insurance plans that individuals of different ages could purchase in 2016 using only the tax credit that would have been available to them had this bill been enacted. A 25 percent actuarial value plan is the most
This brief provides the first state-level estimates of the share of nonelderly adults reporting medical bills that are past due, drawing on data from the 2012 and 2015 National Financial Capability Study. Past-due medical debt is common: 23.8 percent of nonelderly adults reported past-due medical debt in 2015, down 5.8 percentage points from 2012. Past-due medical debt varies considerably across states in both years, with the
Medical debt is one of the most common forms of debt in collections. Consumers can mitigate this risk, but they need to know about effective strategies. Using the National Financial Capability Study, we estimate that nonelderly adults who answer four or five questions correctly on a five-question financial knowledge quiz are 7 percentage points less likely to have past-due medical debt than similar people who answer zero or one
Senior citizens are sitting on a mountain of housing wealth. And even though nearly 37 percent are concerned about their finances in retirement, only 6 percent are willing to tap into their home equity. This paper looks at the reasons older homeowners are so reluctant to draw on housing wealth and finds that many simply want to avoid debt while others face structural impediments to borrowing against home equity. The authors
During the presidential campaign, Donald Trump proposed three new tax benefits related to child care – an expanded credit for low-income families, a deduction for higher income families, and a savings account. These proposals bring attention to the burden child care costs can place on low- and middle-income families. Our analysis finds that about 70 percent of benefits go to families with at least $100,000 and 25 percent of
In 2015, the United Nations adopted an ambitious new agenda for global development, and its proponents have called for a “data revolution” to further its goals. How to mobilize this data revolution? Much of what has been written about it so far implies only the mounting of expanded surveys to track progress under each goal. Although surveys are essential, there are good reasons to believe that surveys alone would be insufficient
Urban education systems around the country have implemented school choice policies aimed at expanding low-income students’ access to high-quality schools. However, true access to choice relies on dependable school- or parent-provided transportation. In this report, we review the available research on student transportation and profile transportation options in five choice-rich cities: Denver, Detroit, New Orleans, New York City
This brief represents the experiences, views, and attitudes of community members who are often underrepresented in research on perceptions of law enforcement – people living in high-crime neighborhoods with concentrated disadvantage. The survey found that while residents of these neighborhoods are distrustful of police, they nevertheless want to cooperate and partner with police to make their communities safer. A door-to-door
Over 150 cities and counties and 34 states and Washington, DC, have adopted ban-the-box policies, which remove questions about criminal history from applications and delay background checks until later in the hiring process. Recent research shows that ban the box has increased callback rates for people with criminal records, but that it has also reduced the likelihood that employers call back or hire young black and Latino men.
The February 2017 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing origination and securitization volume and composition, mortgage delinquency rates, housing credit availability, and latest GSE risk-sharing transactions.
This brief examines effects of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on labor market outcomes using data from the Current Population Survey from 2000 to 2016. Results indicate that through 2016, the ACA had little to no adverse effect on employment and usual hours worked per week. Levels of part-time work (29 or fewer hours per week) have fallen since 2014, but remain at somewhat higher levels than would be expected at this stage of the
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