Over 150 cities and counties and 34 states and Washington, DC, have adopted ban-the-box policies, which remove questions about criminal history from applications and delay background checks until later in the hiring process. Recent research shows that ban the box has increased callback rates for people with criminal records, but that it has also reduced the likelihood that employers call back or hire young black and Latino men.

February 21, 2017
Research Report
 

The February 2017 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing origination and securitization volume and composition, mortgage delinquency rates, housing credit availability, and latest GSE risk-sharing transactions.

February 20, 2017
Research Report
 

This brief examines effects of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on labor market outcomes using data from the Current Population Survey from 2000 to 2016. Results indicate that through 2016, the ACA had little to no adverse effect on employment and usual hours worked per week. Levels of part-time work (29 or fewer hours per week) have fallen since 2014, but remain at somewhat higher levels than would be expected at this stage of the

February 15, 2017
Research Report
 

In workforce development, systems change describes efforts and initiatives that go beyond providing direct services to individual jobseekers and aim to transform how organizations support employers and the workforce. Practitioners and funders involved in such efforts may be working to foster collaboration, quality and accessibility, industry engagement, data-driven decisionmaking, or scale and sustainability in their local

February 14, 2017
Research Report
 

In workforce development, systems change describes efforts and initiatives that go beyond providing direct services to individual jobseekers and aim to transform how organizations support employers and the workforce. Practitioners and funders involved in such efforts may be working to foster collaboration, quality and accessibility, industry engagement, data-driven decisionmaking, or scale and sustainability in their local

February 14, 2017
Brief
 

Forward Cities is a cross-city learning collaborative that fosters inclusive innovation and entrepreneurial development in Cleveland, Detroit, Durham, and New Orleans. During the two-year pilot initiative, community leaders identified focus neighborhoods to direct and coordinate resources to increase entrepreneurship. Forward Cities participants increased their focus on supporting minority entrepreneurs in these underserved

February 10, 2017
Research Report
 

This paper applies the real denial rate method of calculating mortgage denial rates, which we developed and introduced in 2014, to the most recent mortgage data to determine how hard it was for those with less than perfect credit to get a mortgage in 2014 and 2015. The analysis reveals that mortgage denial rates have gone down slightly in recent years but credit remained tight as more lower-credit applicants have simply given up

February 9, 2017
Research Report
 

This report explores how public housing authorities (PHAs) granted Moving to Work (MTW) status by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) use their unique policy and fiscal flexibility to help low-income households move to opportunity-rich neighborhoods. Policy and programs adopted through MTW include changes to the tenant-based Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program or policies that increase the affordable

February 7, 2017
Research Report
 

Many states have expanded Medicaid eligibility to reach a wider array of vulnerable and historically uninsured populations. While Medicaid cannot pay for medical services provided in prisons or jails, people who are arrested and incarcerated can enroll in Medicaid and become eligible for benefits in the community. Given the high prevalence of mental health issues, substance abuse, and chronic health conditions among criminal

February 3, 2017
Brief
 

Many states have expanded Medicaid eligibility to reach a wider array of vulnerable and historically uninsured populations. While Medicaid cannot pay for medical services provided in prisons or jails, people who are arrested and incarcerated can enroll in Medicaid and become eligible for benefits in the community. Given the high prevalence of mental health issues, substance abuse, and chronic health conditions among criminal

February 3, 2017
Brief
 

Many states have expanded Medicaid eligibility to reach a wider array of vulnerable and historically uninsured populations. While Medicaid cannot pay for medical services provided in prisons or jails, people who are arrested and incarcerated can enroll in Medicaid and become eligible for benefits in the community. Given the high prevalence of mental health issues, substance abuse, and chronic health conditions among criminal

February 3, 2017
Brief
 

Many states have expanded Medicaid eligibility to reach a wider array of vulnerable and historically uninsured populations. While Medicaid cannot pay for medical services provided in prisons or jails, people who are arrested and incarcerated can enroll in Medicaid and become eligible for benefits in the community. Given the high prevalence of mental health issues, substance abuse, and chronic health conditions among criminal

February 3, 2017
Brief
 

Many states have expanded Medicaid eligibility to reach a wider array of vulnerable and historically uninsured populations. While Medicaid cannot pay for medical services provided in prisons or jails, people who are arrested and incarcerated can enroll in Medicaid and become eligible for benefits in the community. Given the high prevalence of mental health issues, substance abuse, and chronic health conditions among criminal

February 3, 2017
Brief
 

In late January, 2017, Invitation Homes, the largest owner of single-family rental (SFRs) properties in the US announced that it had secured the backing of Fannie Mae for a $1 billion loan. This is the first government-sponsored enterprise (GSE) financing of a large institutional SFR operator’s debt. This note explains the role of SFRs within the broader rental market, why it makes sense for the GSEs to enter this space and

February 2, 2017
Note
 

This document outlines current efforts by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the states to measure access and quality within Medicaid, describes CMS’s existing access monitoring regulatory approaches, and proposes a Medicaid Access Measurement and Monitoring Plan based on these efforts. It recommends an access framework, an initial core set of access measures, and strategies for implementation and evolution of

February 2, 2017
Research Report
 

Conventional wisdom holds that recent college graduates have a harder time finding jobs today than in the past. But a new approach to assessing job suitability suggests otherwise. To bridge the chasm between competing viewpoints on college’s utility, this Urban Institute study uses statistical tests to measure how many college graduates were overqualified for their positions. Many view college as a worthwhile endeavor because

February 1, 2017
Research Report
 

In Pay for Success projects, the government repays project costs only to the extent that agreed-upon outcomes are achieved -- and in so doing, seeks to achieve high-priority outcomes rather than simply buying outputs. Yet identifying the cost of achieving these outcomes can be a significant hurdle. Cost issues are particularly important for PFS projects because of the contractual nature of cost responsibilities and how project

February 1, 2017
Research Report
 

Understanding living costs such as housing, rent, and transportation is critical to understanding college affordability. The public conversation around college affordability largely focuses on rising tuition and fees, but college students must also cover living costs during a period when their earnings capacity is reduced. In this brief, we document five surprising facts about the rise in living costs on college campuses, with a

January 30, 2017
Brief
 

The vast majority of US businesses are pass-through entities such as sole proprietorships, partnerships, and S corporations. Unlike C corporations, these firms are not subject to the corporate income tax. Instead, the owners include their share of profits as taxable income under the individual income tax, which is taxed up to the maximum rate of 39.6 percent.

January 29, 2017
Brief
 

This study presents information on the 2014 prevalence and cost of emergency department visits and inpatient hospital stays for injuries associated with armed assault in 6 states: Arizona, Florida, Kentucky, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Wisconsin. We examine differences in utilization and patient insurance status between 2010 and 2014. From 2010 to 2014, the rate of hospital use remained stable in Florida, New Jersey, and

January 27, 2017
Brief
 

There has not been a careful consideration of budget concepts since a presidential commission studied the issue in 1967. That commission was highly successful and developed the unified budget which now forms the basis for budget decisions. But the nature of budgeting has evolved since 1967. For example, accrual concepts are used more broadly, especially for credit programs. Offsetting fees have become important in funding

January 26, 2017
Brief
 

To reduce the taxable income on a federal income tax return, a taxpayer can either take a standard deduction or itemize deductions. This brief explores the most costly itemized deductions, who chooses to itemize, and how tax reform might impact specific deductions.

January 26, 2017
Brief
 

The CCDF Policies Database Book of Tables provides tables containing key Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) policies for each state as of October 1, 2015. The tables are based on information in the CCDF Policies Database, a database tracking child care subsidy policies over time and across the States, D.C., and the Territories. The Book summarizes a subset of the information available in the database, including information

January 26, 2017
Research Report
 

Ultralow interest rates have made running deficits virtually costless. That is a major reason that policy makers have lost interest in pursuing major deficit reductions. That is in contrast to the 1980s and 1990s when several major deficit reduction packages were enacted. Nevertheless the nation is still on an unsustainable fiscal path as aging baby boomers flood into Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid. That is not to deny

January 26, 2017
Brief
 

In 10 major US cities, financially insecure families are prevalent, and residents’ financial insecurity affects city budgets. Families with less than $2,000 in savings ranged from 46 percent of residents (Seattle) to 73 percent of residents (Miami), compared with 52 percent of families nationally. The costs to cities range from between $8 and $18 million in New Orleans to between $280 and $646 million in New York City. In

January 25, 2017
Brief