In “A More Promising Road to GSE Reform,” Jim Parrott, Lewis Ranieri, Gene Sperling, Mark Zandi, and Barry Zigas proposed to merge Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac into a government corporation that pushes its credit risk into the private market. In this paper, the authors discuss the three primary alternatives: the multiple guarantor model, the utility model, and the mutual model.

September 28, 2016
Brief
 

Using the 2011–15 National Health Interview Survey and 2013–14 American Community Survey, we find that uninsurance among nonelderly veterans fell during the early years of implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), with associated improvements in access to care. Veterans’ uninsurance declined between 2013 and 2014 in 9 of the 10 states examined, and uninsurance also fell among veterans’ family members. Declines were larger

September 27, 2016
Brief
 

The September 2016 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing the size of the mortgage market, first-time homebuyer share, negative household equity, and revised and more accurate FICO and loan-to-value measures for new purchase mortgage originations.

September 26, 2016
Research Report
 

Housing assistance improves lives across the age continuum. Erika Poethig testified before the Senate Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Subcommittee on the need to expand federal rental assistance and to use the best evidence to reform policies and programs to improve health, education, and economic mobility.

September 21, 2016
Testimony
 

Kids’ Share 2016: Federal Expenditures on Children through 2015, a 10th annual report, looks comprehensively at federal spending and tax expenditures on children. Federal spending on children has remained fairly flat over the past four years, in real dollars. Broader budgetary forces will restrict spending on children over the next 10 years, despite an overall projected growth of over $1.5 trillion in federal spending. Over the

September 20, 2016
Research Report
 

This report, the latest in an annual series, is based on fundraising data collected from over 9,900 organizations that have collected data on gifts received. These organizations reported gains of $4.7 billion in gifts from new, upgraded current, and previously lapsed donors. However, these gains were offset by losses of $4.2 billion through reduced gifts and lapsed donors. The report is a product of the Fundraising Effectiveness

September 20, 2016
Research Report
 

Child care can be an insurmountable barrier for low-income parents seeking education and training so they can get better jobs to support their families. Helping families with child care can also be challenging for programs trying to help these parents get ahead. Despite funding and policy barriers, there are programs that have taken on this challenge. This brief summarizes a longer study and lays out six steps that local and

September 20, 2016
Brief
 

People displaced into urban areas due to war, persecution, or climatic crisis have claimed an increasingly prominent position in humanitarian operations and research. Through an examination of three African municipalities currently hosting displaced persons we study the cognitive, financial, and political incentives that work for and against a proactive response to displacement. We find that in cities where deprivation is

September 20, 2016
Research Report
 

This is part of the Urban Institute’s series of reports from the Bridging the Gap project, which focuses on what we know about the child care needs of parents needing education and training.   Removing barriers to child care access for low-income parents participating in education and training is an important step in supporting the economic well-being of these families and creating positive outcomes for their children. This

September 20, 2016
Brief
 

Kids’ Share 2016: Federal Expenditures on Children through 2015, a 10th annual report, looks comprehensively at trends in federal spending and tax expenditures on children. This appendix details our data sources, the programs we include, and the methodology used to estimate the percentage of all expenditures that went to children.

September 20, 2016
Brief
 

This is part of the Urban Institute’s series of reports from the Bridging the Gap project, which focuses on what we know about the child care needs of parents needing education and training.   Lack of child care can be a major barrier for low-income parents seeking education and training to improve their job prospects. Aware of this challenge, many local programs are working to meet these families’ needs. We interviewed 17

September 20, 2016
Research Report
 

This project assesses the impact of financial and employment counseling services offered by Financial Opportunity Centers (FOCs) at AmeriCorps sites operated by LISC (Local Initiatives Support Corporation).The assessment used propensity score matching to compare short-term changes in economic and financial outcomes for LISC clients with changes observed for comparison group members. The results suggest that FOCs tend to have

September 19, 2016
Research Report
 

We compare unsubsidized 2016 nongroup marketplace premiums to the average employer sponsored insurance premiums in all 50 states and 73 metropolitan areas. We adjust second lowest cost nongroup marketplace premiums to account for the differences in actuarial value, induced utilization, and age distribution of enrollees. We find that nationally, nongroup marketplace premiums are 10 percent lower than the average employer

September 19, 2016
Brief
 

There is broad consensus that physician and other provider payment methods need to evolve from rewarding “volume” to promoting “value.” But what that means exactly, and what will be the recipe for success, remains somewhat elusive. The Health Care Payment Learning and Action Network’s (LAN) Framework establishes a logical categorization of payment models that will help monitor the progress of payment reform. Yet, the Framework

September 19, 2016
Brief
 

This paper analyzes the House GOP tax reform blueprint, which would significantly reduce marginal tax rates, increase standard deduction amounts, repeal personal exemptions and most itemized deductions, allow businesses to expense new investment, and not allow businesses to deduct net interest expenses. Taxes would drop at all income levels in 2017, but most savings would go to the highest-income households. Federal revenues

September 16, 2016
Research Report
 

This paper gives an overview of the methodology behind the short- and long-run dynamic scoring of Hillary Clinton’s and Donald Trump’s tax plan proposals. Following the practice of official government estimators, we use a Keynesian model to estimate the short-term effects of policy changes on output relative to its full-employment level. That model assumes tax policy can influence the economy by changing the demand for goods and

September 16, 2016
Brief
 

The Fellowship Initiative (TFI) is a multiyear program developed by JPMorgan Chase to expand opportunities for young men of color. TFI’s mission is to help young men acquire the skills, knowledge, experience, networks, and other resources they need to succeed academically and professionally. Students apply when they are in the 9th grade; programming begins the summer before their sophomore year and extends through the summer

September 16, 2016
Brief
 

US fiscal policy has long been unsustainable, driven largely by automatically growing entitlement spending and insufficient revenues. Often overlooked is the extent to which this preordained fiscal policy limits policymakers’ discretion to act on new priorities each year. This study lays out reforms to the federal budget process that could restore greater discretion to congressional lawmakers, so that a greater share of revenues

September 15, 2016
Research Report
 

Borrowers have more choices than ever for paying down their student loans. Although many borrowers still automatically enroll in standard 10-year, fixed-payment plans, some opt to enroll in programs that allow smaller monthly payments, such as income-driven repayment plans or plans with longer repayment periods. I present a new analysis of borrower-level credit bureau data, showing that borrowers who start repayment with smaller

September 15, 2016
Brief
 

Women’s use of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods has increased, but current, nationally representative information is limited on women’s awareness and perceptions of birth control methods that inform efforts to further increase take-up of effective forms of birth control. This brief uses 2016 data to explore women’s familiarity with various birth control methods, particularly LARCs, and how women of

September 14, 2016
Brief
 

No one is happy about how fast tuition and fees are rising at colleges around the country, but a closer look at higher education funding can help address the issue. The pricing system for college and university tuition is complex and easily misunderstood. Senior fellow Sandy Baum’s testimony examines college and university endowments, tuition increases, and student debt, presenting the challenges many colleges face to reduce

September 13, 2016
Testimony
 

This study—conducted by the Charities Regulation and Oversight Project at Columbia Law School and the Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy at the Urban Institute—is the first systematic analysis of state-level oversight and regulation of US charities. It has three components: a legal analysis of laws pertaining to charities in 56 US jurisdictions; a survey of state and territory offices with oversight, regulatory, and

September 13, 2016
Research Report
 

Every year, the Urban Institute produces hundreds of reports, briefs, webcasts, and blog posts. In this publication, Urban’s State and Local Finance Initiative brings together the latest evidence-based research, data, and solutions with direct relevance for analysts crafting and deliberating over state budgets. Topics include: Medicaid and the Affordable Care Act, criminal justice and corrections, education, social safety net

September 13, 2016
Research Report
 

Read the related handout. Food-insecure teens who don’t get enough to eat sometimes resort to extreme measures to cope with hunger—from saving school lunches for the weekend or going hungry so younger siblings can eat to stealing or trading sex for money to buy food. The most risky behaviors are by no means typical of all teens, even in the most distressed communities, but they illustrate the lengths to which some of the most

September 12, 2016
Research Report
 

This report examines levels of insurance coverage, Medicaid eligibility, and Medicaid participation among nonelderly adults in 2014, the first year following the implementation of the major coverage provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Uninsurance among both parents and childless adults fell sharply between 2013 and 2014, especially in states expanding Medicaid under the ACA. An estimated 7 in 10 eligible adults without

September 8, 2016
Research Report