The US tax system provides a deduction for charitable giving, but only for the 25 percent of taxpayers who itemize deductions on their tax returns. Accordingly, advocates for the charitable sector have at times proposed to extend a deduction to itemizers and nonitemizers alike. Today these proposals arise from a desire both to increase charitable giving and protect the incentive from being swept up in reforms that in limiting
The October 2016 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing housing credit availability, first-time homebuyer share, GSE risk-sharing transactions, and latest agency issuance activities
Rural America covers nearly 75 percent of US land area and is home to 15 percent of the US population (roughly equivalent to Spain’s population). Metropolitan areas are home to the other 85 percent, and because these areas are frequently cited as hotbeds of development, innovation, artistic expression, and wealth creation, urban challenges and goals dominate most policy discussions. As urban America has grown, rural America has
This brief analyzes seven options for Child Tax Credit reform that would (1) make the CTC more consistent with other parts of the tax code; (2) target additional benefits to young children; or (3) broadly increase the credit for most current recipients.
From 2006 to 2014, the number of children ages 0 to 17 with at least one immigrant parent grew by 2 million children, from 15.7 to 17.7 million. They account for nearly one-quarter of all children in the United States. This brief highlights national, state and metro level information, using data from the 2013 and 2014 American Community Surveys.
Women of reproductive age are at the greatest risk of negative health effects from Zika virus, but current, nationally representative information on women’s knowledge about Zika is limited. This brief uses data from late-summer 2016 to explore women’s Zika awareness and concern, knowledge of Zika transmission modes, symptoms, and health effects, and actions taken to prevent Zika infection. The vast majority of women of
Many Americans lack the financial knowledge to navigate the modern economy and avoid financial hardship. While information regarding the costs and benefits of financial choices is readily available, many people enter the workforce without knowing how to convert that information into sound decisionmaking. Furthermore, financial education efforts have shown mixed results, and turning classroom theory into lasting habits remains
Tax policy is one of the most challenging and controversial components of state governance. Determining how and from whom to collect revenue involves questions of equity, fairness, efficiency, and simplicity. As a result, states often create special tax commissions before attempting major tax reform. This brief discusses who establishes commissions, who serves on commissions, who advises commissions, what commissions recommend,
Nearly all state tax commissions—independent groups that study and make recommendations for improving a state’s tax system—are tasked with improving economic development within the state. Their report introductions include phrases such as “growth-friendly,” “unleash innovation,” and “optimum competitor.” And many commissions cite economic development to justify their concluding recommendations. But most reports ultimately
Detroit has weathered several economic shocks over recent decades, creating a complicated landscape for the financial health of its residents and the city as a whole. The city’s economy depends upon financially healthy residents. This brief uses credit bureau data to examine Detroit residents’ financial health through credit scores, debt profiles, and delinquencies. Sixty-six percent of Detroit residents have a subprime or no
This report represents a partnership between Urban and the Center for Policing Equity’s National Justice Database, in collaboration with the White House’s Police Data Initiative. The report analyzes publicly available data in 2015 vehicle stops and 2014 use of force incidents on the part of the Austin Police Department. Findings indicate that even when controlling for neighborhood levels of crime, education, homeownership,
This paper analyzes presidential candidate Donald Trump’s revised tax proposal, which would significantly reduce marginal tax rates, increase standard deduction amounts, repeal personal exemptions, cap itemized deductions, and allow businesses to elect to expense new investment and not deduct interest expense. His proposal would cut taxes at all income levels, although the largest benefits, in dollar and percentage terms, would
This paper updates an analysis of Hillary Clinton’s tax proposals, which would raise taxes on high-income taxpayers, increase the child tax credit, modify taxation of multinational corporations, reform capital gains taxes, and increase estate and gift taxes. Her proposals would increase revenue by $1.4 trillion over the next decade. Nearly all of the tax increases would fall on the highest-income 1 percent; on average, low- and
Research is a critical ingredient for efforts that seek to meet housing needs. The Global Housing Research Initiative, created by Habitat for Humanity International and Cities Alliance, examines evidence on housing investments and policies. The Urban Institute led the first phase, which involved producing a literature review of over 1,000 monographs focused on Latin America and the Caribbean. Key gaps identified include research
The Affordable Care Act introduced health insurance Marketplaces in 2014 to help provide access to affordable insurance coverage. Using early release data from the National Health Interview Survey, we examined the characteristics of adult Marketplace enrollees in 2015, how they have changed since 2014, and how they differ between Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states. We found that coverage through the Marketplaces
This study estimates the association between the Medicaid expansion in 2014 and hospital finances by assessing differences between hospitals in states that expanded Medicaid and in those states that did not expand Medicaid. This analysis primarily uses fiscal year 2011-2014 data from Health Care Cost Reports. Overall, hospitals located in states that implemented the Medicaid expansion had significantly increased Medicaid revenue
Controversy rages about how to tax carried interest. One view sees carry as compensation that should be taxed like other labor income. Another sees carry as a reward for financial risk-taking that should be taxed like capital income. A third sees carry as creating a costly tax arbitrage. In this paper, Donald Marron shows how we can reconcile these three views. Current practice taxes carry too little. Treating it as labor income
Besides human rights protection and social welfare improvement, fostering female participation in the economy can stimulate growth with human capital accumulation and enhance the competitiveness of businesses. But women face many barriers to participating in the labor market, particularly in high productivity sectors, due to limited investments in education, time burdens from care responsibilities, legal prohibitions to land
To understand the US Interagency Council on Homelessness’s (USICH’s) role in the nation’s efforts to end homelessness and potential effects of the agency’s impending termination in 2017, we interviewed more than 50 federal, national, state, and local stakeholders across the public, private, and nonprofit sectors. Interviewees at the federal and local levels perceived USICH as uniquely positioned to help achieve the nation’s
This report answers three important questions about NeighborWorks America’s homeownership education and counseling program. Who uses the program? The share of disadvantaged borrowers among NeighborWorks’ clients is almost twice as high as among general home purchase mortgage applicants and borrowers. Where could the program be of greatest use? The program is most useful in metropolitan statistical areas with high mortgage
One hundred eighty six nations have adopted 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), one of which, SDG 3.2, aims to reduce under-5 mortality to 25 deaths per thousand in all countries by 2030. Achieving this goal is daunting for many African countries, where child mortality remains high. Research around the world and over time has shown an association between birth order and mortality, with later born children (of higher “birth
Presidential candidate Hillary Clinton has indicated interest in a Medicare buy-in option for those ages 55 to 64 and a public plan option for the Affordable Care Act’s Marketplaces as mechanisms for increasing the affordability of insurance outside employer-sponsored insurance. Medicare is an attractive basis for developing insurance alternatives (either a direct buy-in or a public option based in Medicare rates) since the
In “A More Promising Road to GSE Reform,” Jim Parrott, Lewis Ranieri, Gene Sperling, Mark Zandi, and Barry Zigas proposed to merge Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac into a government corporation that pushes its credit risk into the private market. In this paper, the authors discuss the three primary alternatives: the multiple guarantor model, the utility model, and the mutual model.
Using the 2011–15 National Health Interview Survey and 2013–14 American Community Survey, we find that uninsurance among nonelderly veterans fell during the early years of implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), with associated improvements in access to care. Veterans’ uninsurance declined between 2013 and 2014 in 9 of the 10 states examined, and uninsurance also fell among veterans’ family members. Declines were larger
The September 2016 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing the size of the mortgage market, first-time homebuyer share, negative household equity, and revised and more accurate FICO and loan-to-value measures for new purchase mortgage originations.
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