The National Neighborhood Indicators Partnership (NNIP), coordinated by the Urban Institute, is a peer learning network of local organizations that share a mission to improve low-income neighborhoods by empowering local stakeholders to use data in planning, policymaking, and community building. Based on 20 years of NNIP experience, this guide describes the role of a local data intermediary, the process of identifying a home for

May 27, 2016
Research Report
 

The May 2016 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes new figures describing housing credit availability, first-time homebuyer share, government-sponsored enterprise (GSE) risk-sharing activities, and a special quarterly feature on GSE loan composition, repurchase rates, defaults, and loss severity.

May 26, 2016
Research Report
 

Prior reports have indicated that average premium increases across the country were substantial in 2016. This masks considerable variation both across and within states. We have analyzed the lowest cost silver plan premium available in each rating region across the country to identify the market characteristics most associated with premium increases and decreases. These include but are not limited to the number of participating

May 24, 2016
Research Report
 

The Sanders campaign and David Himmelstein and Steffie Woolhandler reacted with sharp criticisms to our recent report, The Sanders Single-Payer Health Care Plan: The Effect on National Health Expenditures and Federal and Private Spending. In this brief, we discuss our key assumptions in these areas of disagreement and highlight ways in which we may have actually underestimated overall costs of the Sanders proposal. By and large

May 18, 2016
Brief
 

This testimony describes how taxes on corporate earnings have dropped because of corporate moves to avoid taxes and because of shareholder shifts from taxable to nontaxable accounts. Secondly, the testimony describes how a lower estimate of the taxable share of US stock complicates attempts to integrate corporate and individual taxes further. Finally, the testimony suggests some areas for further research on the competitiveness

May 17, 2016
Testimony
 

Two- to four-unit buildings disproportionately provide housing and income to low-income communities and minority owners and renters. This report explains why these loans are important, discusses how difficult it has become to obtain one, and establishes that an overcorrection by policymakers caused that difficulty. We need to encourage lenders to increase their loss tolerance and lend more readily for these properties. We

May 16, 2016
Research Report
 

Accelerating Opportunity (AO) combined integrated career pathways at two-year colleges with team teaching, acceleration strategies, supportive services, and policy changes. It aimed to help low-skilled adults earn occupational credentials, obtain well-paying jobs, and sustain rewarding careers. This final implementation report documents activities and outcomes for AO states and colleges in Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, and

May 16, 2016
Research Report
 

Urban Alliance serves at-risk youth through its high school internship program which provides training, mentoring, and work experience to high school seniors from distressed communities. The program serves youth with the goal of helping them successfully transition to higher education or employment after graduation. The Urban Institute is conducting a six-year, randomized controlled trial evaluation of its high school

May 16, 2016
Research Report
 

Boys and young men of color, on average, lag behind their peers on preschool skills by age 2 and never catch up academically. When these students struggle in school, it is often because of problems with person-environment fit. The quality of the fit depends on how well students can assume the roles that teachers, counselors, and administrators expect of them; how willing and able those educators are to adapt to student needs;

May 10, 2016
Brief
 

Within every age group, there are males of color who achieve excellence. But boys and young men of color remain overrepresented among those who do not excel academically and face home, school, peer-group, and societal disadvantages relative to their white peers. This paper proposes strategies to achieve a person-environment fit that can change dynamics and lead to better educational outcomes for these students.

May 10, 2016
Research Report
 

Using the American Community Survey, this brief examines how participation and uninsurance changed among children who were eligible for Medicaid/CHIP between 2013 and 2014, the first year of implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA)’s major coverage provisions. Medicaid/CHIP participation among eligible children rose by 2.3 percentage points, from 88.7 percent in 2013 to 91.0 percent in 2014, and the number of eligible

May 10, 2016
Research Report
 

Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders proposed a single-payer system to replace all current health coverage. His system would cover all medically necessary care, including long-term care, without cost-sharing. We estimate that the approach would decrease the uninsured by 28.3 million people in 2017. National health expenditures would increase by $6.6 trillion between 2017 and 2026, while federal expenditures would increase by $

May 9, 2016
Research Report
 

Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders proposes significant tax increases that would raise $15.3 trillion over the next decade. All income groups would pay more tax, but most would come from high-income households, particularly those with very high incomes. Sanders would also implement new government benefits—notably government-financed single-payer health care, long-term services and supports, college, and family leave benefits—

May 9, 2016
Research Report
 

The euphoria in the run-up to the financial crisis artificially increased the demand for all asset classes, including agency mortgage-backed securities (MBS). The result was an asset price bubble as well as a liquidity bubble that has since burst. Despite the drop, MBS liquidity remains healthy, with occasional volatility caused by greater regulation and more concentrated ownership of MBS. We discuss the causes and implications

May 6, 2016
Article
 

Income taxes are an important component of the Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) but are not reported on the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC). Instead, the Census Bureau uses a tax calculation program to calculate taxes for individuals and families in the CPS ASEC. In this paper, we compare the results of the Census Bureau’s tax model with results from three other tax models—TAXSIM, the

May 5, 2016
Research Report
 

South Dakota made significant reforms to its justice system with the 2013 enactment of the Public Safety Improvement Act. This brief summarizes findings on the preliminary impact of two of these reforms: presumptive probation and felony reclassifications of drug possession and ingestion. These policies have produced positive results, but new developments threaten that success. While prison admissions and sentence lengths for

May 5, 2016
Brief
 

This brief focuses on the health insurance coverage experiences under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of mothers living with dependent children. Using 1997–2014 data from the National Health Interview Survey, we examine trends in uninsurance among mothers nationally and for mothers in states that did and did not expand Medicaid under the ACA by May 2014. We also assess changes from 2013 to 2014 in the characteristics of uninsured

May 5, 2016
Brief
 

This paper describes the analytic work the authors undertook to support a broader research and engagement effort led by the Bridgespan Group around developing a set of big bets, or strategic investments that philanthropic actors could make to improve social mobility. The paper provides a technical explanation for the projected impact of the bets, which we calculated using the Social Genome Model. This analysis focused on six

May 4, 2016
Research Report
 

High school achievement results have stagnated, even as elementary and middle school achievement has risen significantly since the 1990s. Student-level data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) strongly suggest that stagnant high school achievement is a real phenomenon. This result is consistent across different versions of NAEP and does not appear to result from changes in who is taking the test, flaws in

May 3, 2016
Research Report
 

Payment reform promises to substitute value for volume, but value- and volume-based approaches typically are implemented together. All payment methods have strengths and weaknesses, and how they affect the behavior of health care providers depends on their operational design features and how they interact with benefit design. Those seeking greater value for their health care dollar are also turning to innovation in benefit

May 3, 2016
Research Report
 

Payment reform promises to substitute value for volume, but value- and volume-based approaches typically are implemented together. All payment methods have strengths and weaknesses, and how they affect the behavior of health care providers depends on their operational design features and how they interact with benefit design. Those seeking greater value for their health care dollar are also turning to innovation in benefit

May 3, 2016
Research Report
 

Payment reform promises to substitute value for volume, but value- and volume-based approaches typically are implemented together. All payment methods have strengths and weaknesses, and how they affect the behavior of health care providers depends on their operational design features and how they interact with benefit design. Those seeking greater value for their health care dollar are also turning to innovation in benefit

May 3, 2016
Research Report
 

In this brief, we offer policymakers and pay for success (PFS) stakeholders principles to help them understand and interpret evidence and lay the groundwork for incorporating evidence into broader public decisionmaking. We explore the following questions: What is evidence? Why does evidence matter for PFS projects? How do you assess the quality of existing evidence and program evaluations? What do you do when the evidence base

May 3, 2016
Brief
 

Payment reform promises to substitute value for volume, but value- and volume-based approaches typically are implemented together. All payment methods have strengths and weaknesses, and how they affect the behavior of health care providers depends on their operational design features and how they interact with benefit design. Those seeking greater value for their health care dollar are also turning to innovation in benefit

May 3, 2016
Research Report
 

Payment reform promises to substitute value for volume, but value- and volume-based approaches typically are implemented together. All payment methods have strengths and weaknesses, and how they affect the behavior of health care providers depends on their operational design features and how they interact with benefit design. Those seeking greater value for their health care dollar are also turning to innovation in benefit

May 3, 2016
Research Report