For children to thrive and reach their full potential, they need adequate food and shelter, high-quality health care and education, safe environments, and supportive parents and families. Though families play a key role in meeting children’s needs, society also provides resources and services to support children’s healthy development. Through their funding of public schools, health systems, and social services, state and local

April 25, 2017
Research Report
 

In 2010, South Carolina passed the Sentencing Reform Act, enacting comprehensive criminal justice reforms. One key reform encouraged the Department of Probation, Parole, and Pardon Services to employ administration responses to parole and probation violations, rather than sending people to prison. This brief finds that, following these reforms, use of administrative responses increased. Reform implementation was associated with

April 24, 2017
Brief
 

The April 2017 edition of At A Glance, the Housing Finance Policy Center’s reference guide for mortgage and housing market data, includes updated figures describing housing credit availability, agency and non-agency MBS issuance activities, and latest GSE risk-sharing transactions.

April 24, 2017
Research Report
 

States invest in three areas to encourage job and wage growth: the marketplace, the workforce, and the community. Marketplace investment includes general business support and finance assistance, small-business procurement programs, and tax incentives. Workforce programs develop and train the local labor force, connecting workers to family-sustaining jobs while meeting firm demands for skilled labor. Investment in community

April 24, 2017
Research Report
 

Medicare’s Oncology Care Model (OCM) is designed to incentivize providers to reduce unnecessary spending, improve care, and involve patients more closely in decisions about the use of chemotherapy. The model includes a 13-point care plan recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) that represents a significant step toward making patients partners in their own care; in particular, it aims the volume of OCM episodes by reducing

April 23, 2017
Brief
 

Fathers recently released from correctional institutions have significant service needs and can face considerable barriers to meeting those needs as they reintegrate back to their communities. To help fathers achieve their reentry, self-sufficiency, and family goals, six Office of Family Assistance-funded Fatherhood Reentry programs employed unique approaches to providing parenting, relationship, and economic stability services

April 20, 2017
Research Report
 

Fathers find it difficult to maintain their relationships with their children during and after their incarceration experience. To help fathers sustain and strengthen their relationships with their children, six Office of Family Assistance-funded Fatherhood Reentry programs implemented a range of activities intended to build fathers’ knowledge of parenting and child development, increase fathers’ contact and communication with

April 20, 2017
Brief
 

After incarceration, fathers must overcome several reentry barriers, including reconnecting with their spouse, partner, or coparent. To help fathers reunify with and support their families, six Office of Family Assistance-funded Fatherhood Reentry programs implemented a range of healthy marriage activities aimed to strengthen fathers’ relationships with their partners or coparents, encourage effective coparenting, and prevent

April 20, 2017
Brief
 

Fathers with incarceration experiences can face critical barriers to achieving economic self-sufficiency. To assist fathers with overcoming these challenges, six Office of Family Assistance-funded Fatherhood Reentry programs implemented a range of activities designed to help fathers improve their employability, increase their financial literacy, connect them to employment opportunities, and reduce their barriers to self-

April 20, 2017
Brief
 

This brief assesses changes in uninsurance among nonelderly veterans during the first two years after implementation of the coverage provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We find that uninsurance among veterans fell from 9.6 percent in 2013 to 5.9 percent in 2014, a nearly 40 percent drop. Declines in uninsurance were broad-based across subgroups and states, but larger for veterans below 138 percent of FPL and in ACA

April 19, 2017
Research Report
 

Policymakers looking to provide evidence-based opportunity for Americans should look to matched savings programs, such as individual development accounts. By matching personal saving, individual development accounts (IDAs) improve financial capability while promoting saving for longer-term investment in a home, business or education. A randomized controlled trial evaluation of the federally supported Assets for Independence IDA

April 19, 2017
Brief
 

Relationships between children and their parents are the foundation on which children learn how to form and sustain healthy relationships. Disrupting those relationships—by losing a parent to incarceration, for example—can have long-term effects on children and may lead to antisocial behavior, poor school performance, and physical and mental health problems. Recent estimates show that 2.7 million US children have a parent who

April 13, 2017
Research Report
 

The Community Development Block Grant (CDBG), administered by HUD, is the most sizable, stable, and comprehensive support for community and economic development in the US. For many jurisdictions, it is a steady source of funding dedicated to benefiting low-income individuals and communities, which allows them to focus on implementation rather than fundraising. However, the program faces considerable challenges, and real-dollar

April 13, 2017
Brief
 

We spend more than 2/3rds of our time where we live; thus, housing and neighborhood conditions invariably affect our individual and family’s well-being. The health impacts from blighted properties—substandard housing, abandoned buildings, and vacant lots—are often not immediately visible or felt. This report—Urban Blight and Public Health—synthesizes recent studies on the complexities of how blight affects the health of

April 11, 2017
Research Report
 

Extended Abstract Covering 14 million state and local government employees, public pension plans typically provide lifetime retirement benefits based on years of service and the salary earned near the end of a career. These pensions provide meaningful retirement security to employees covered by a plan for a full career, but offer few benefits to shorter-term employees, a drawback that is becoming increasingly problematic as

April 10, 2017
Brief
 

This report examines the effects of the Affordable Care Act’s (ACA) Medicaid expansion on insurance coverage for childless adult citizens with incomes below the federal poverty level. Using data from the National Health Interview Survey, we estimate the effect of the expansion on poor childless adult citizens overall and by age, gender, race, income, education, and self-reported health status. We find that the Medicaid expansion

April 9, 2017
Brief
 

Rising concerns over college prices and student debt suggest that college is unaffordable for many people. But a more meaningful question is whether particular college options are worth it for individual students. This brief, along with a new Urban Institute website, outlines the many factors that shed light on the issue of college affordability, including prices of different college paths and the resources that institutions,

April 7, 2017
Brief
 

Nonprofits and Government provides students and practitioners with the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary, research-based inquiry into the collaborative and conflicting relationship between nonprofits and government at all levels: local, national, and international. The contributors—all leading experts—explore how government regulates, facilitates, finances, and oversees nonprofit activities, and how nonprofits, in turn, try

April 7, 2017
Research Report
 

The Legal Aid Society’s Exploitation Intervention Project (EIP) represents most individuals prosecuted for violating New York State prostitution laws. EIP also represents survivors of trafficking into prostitution and works to clear charges from their criminal records if they were a result of having been trafficked. Urban researchers gathered data from both groups of EIP clients to describe who is facing arrest in New York City

April 5, 2017
Research Report
 

This paper gives an overview of the TPC’s methodology for dynamic analysis of tax proposals. Following the practice of official government estimators, we use a Keynesian model to estimate the short-term effects of policy changes on output relative to its full-employment level. That model assumes tax policy can influence the economy by changing the demand for goods and services. For example, a tax cut could encourage consumers to

April 5, 2017
Research Report
 

What works in job training? How might the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) change the workforce development system? Demetra Nightingale addresses these questions in her testimony on the workforce development system and job training that was delivered to the House Committee on Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies.

April 4, 2017
Testimony
 

The health care industry is surging. It is the country’s fastest-growing industry and produces the highest demand for middle-skill jobs—positions that require some postsecondary training but not necessarily a four-year degree. Middle-skill jobs can mean higher wages, job satisfaction, and the next step on a career pathway for low-skilled workers in entry-level jobs. The health care industry is ideal for developing a pipeline to

April 3, 2017
Research Report
 

The choice for states to expand Medicaid could affect the financial health of hospitals by decreasing the proportion of patient volume and unreimbursed expenses attributable to uninsured patients, while increasing revenue from newly covered patients. This study estimates the effects of the ACA on hospital finances in 2015 and how they differ between hospitals in states that expanded Medicaid and hospitals in states that did not

April 3, 2017
Research Report
 

This paper explores the history of charitable statistics in the United States, outlining three distinct waves of interest over the last century in the measurement of charitable giving. The methodological approaches of each, the paper demonstrates, were shaped by the perspectives and purposes of the group most committed to the project of measurement. The paper then suggests that we are in the midst of another such wave and puts

March 31, 2017
Brief
 

Miami and Miami-Dade County have experienced rapid population growth and development in recent years, particularly in the city’s booming downtown. The influx of new residents and development of extensive market-rate and high-end units have led to rising housing costs for many households, particularly for low- and middle-income (LMI) households who make too much for subsidies and too little to pay market prices. Through a data-

March 30, 2017
Research Report