Aging Behind Bars: Trends and Implications of Graying Prisoners in the Federal Prison System (Research Report)
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This new Urban Institute study provides an in-depth examination of the growth patterns in the largest correctional system in the United States—the US Bureau of Prisons. The number of prisoners age 50 or older experienced a 330 percent increase from 1994 to 2011. The authors find that the proportion of these older prisoners is expected to have an even steeper growth curve in the near future and they may consume a disproportionately large amount of the federal prison budget. Recommendations for policy and research include expanding data-driven knowledge on older prisoners and developing cost-effective management plans for them.
Close-Range Gunfire around DC Schools (Research Report)
|Posted to Web: September 05, 2014||Publication Date: September 05, 2014|
This report examines the incidence of gunfire as measured by gunshot detection technology using data from the 2011-2012 school year. It finds that a disproportionate volume of gunfire happened near a small share of DC schools. About half of DC schools covered by gunshot detection sensors are in close proximity to gunfire, and four schools were subject to repeated bursts of gunfire. These findings shed new light on students' exposure to violence and raise important questions about the psychological impact of gunfire on students and how their proximity to gunfire may affect truancy and educational outcomes.
State Variation in Hospital Use and Cost of Firearm Assault Injury, 2010 (Research Report)
|Posted to Web: September 03, 2014||Publication Date: September 03, 2014|
Hospital use and hospital mortality related to firearm-assault injuries varies considerably across demographic groups and states, as does the percentage of firearm-assault injury hospital costs borne by the public. Healthcare data from six states--Arizona, California, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Wisconsin--show that hospital use for firearm-assault injury is disproportionately concentrated among young males, particularly young black males. Additionally, uninsured victims have higher hospital mortality rates for firearm-assault injury. Across all six states, the public pays a substantial portion of the hospital cost for injuries caused by firearm assault.
Interim Reincarceration Outcomes of Safer Return (Research Report)
|Posted to Web: August 25, 2014||Publication Date: August 25, 2014|
Safer Return provided supportive services to 727 individuals returning from state prison to Chicago's Garfield Park neighborhood. This interim analysis uses administrative data from the Illinois Department of Corrections to compare one-year reincarceration outcomes of: Safer Return participants, nonparticipants paroled to a comparison neighborhood, and nonparticipants paroled to Garfield Park. Of the three groups, program participants had the lowest reincarceration rate. Statistical analyses find that participants' did not fare significantly better than nonparticipants paroled to the comparison neighborhood, but they did fare significantly better than Garfield Park nonparticipants. Differences in reincarceration rates were driven largely by differences in technical violations.
Organizational Efficiency and Early Disposition Programs in Federal Courts (Research Report)
|Posted to Web: March 28, 2014||Publication Date: March 28, 2014|
Early disposition or "fast-track" programs in federal sentencing allow a prosecutor to offer a reduced sentence in exchange for a defendant's prompt guilty plea and waiver of certain legal rights. Based on immigration cases in federal districts, this study finds that fast-track participants received a modest reduction in sentence length compared to otherwise similar non-participants. The estimated reduction in case processing time attributable to fast-track programs was also of moderate consequence to the government. The report discusses policy implications of fast-track processing in terms of organizational efficiency and fair treatment of defendants in federal court.
Imprisonment and Disenfranchisement of Disconnected Low-Income Men (Research Brief)
|Posted to Web: February 18, 2014||Publication Date: January 24, 2014|
Incarceration rates have risen over time and vary by race and ethnicity, reflecting changes in federal and state crime policies over the past few decades. In 2011, African American men were six times more likely and Hispanics nearly two and half times more likely to be imprisoned than white men. This brief summarizes some of the disparate impacts these policies have had on African American and Hispanic men and the consequences for their families and communities.
Stemming the Tide: Strategies to Reduce the Growth and Cut the Cost of the Federal Prison System (Research Report)
|Posted to Web: January 08, 2014||Publication Date: January 08, 2014|
The federal prison population has risen dramatically over the past few decades, as more people are sentenced to prison and for longer terms. The result? Dangerously overcrowded facilities and an increasing expense to taxpayers. In a new Urban Institute report, the authors project the population and cost savings impact of a variety of strategies designed to reduce the inmate population without compromising public safety. They find that the most effective approach is a combination of strategies, including early release for current prisoners and reducing the length of stay for future offenders, particularly those convicted of drug trafficking.
Read the Full Report
Appendix B: Methodology
Bending the Curve on Costly, Overcrowded Federal Prisons will Require Sweeping Reforms (Press Release)
|Posted to Web: November 05, 2013||Publication Date: October 21, 2013|
Federal prisons house almost 10 times the number of inmates as they did in 1980. These facilities, overcapacity by at least a third, are on track to consume over 30 percent of the Department of Justice's budget by 2020. A new study analyzes a slate of options designed to stem this unsustainable growth without compromising public safety. The conclusion: doing so will require major changes in sentencing and early release policies.
|Posted to Web: November 05, 2013||Publication Date: November 05, 2013|