'Stand Your Ground' Laws: Civil Rights and Public Safety Implications of the Expanded Use of Deadly Force: Testimony before the Senate Committee on Judiciary Subcommittee on Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights (Testimony)
Stand your ground laws, which extend the right to use deadly force in self-defense beyond the home, exacerbate racial disparities in the rate at which homicides are found to be justified, John Roman told a Senate subcommittee. In homicides of blacks committed by whites, 11.4 percent were found to be justified, while in homicides of whites committed by blacks, only 1.2 percent were found to be justified. The racial disparity is larger in states with stand your ground laws, and racial disparities increase in stand your ground states after the law is enacted.
The Justice Reinvestment Initiative: Experiences from the States (Research Report)
This brief summarizes the efforts of states involved in the Justice Reinvestment Initiative (JRI), a program designed to identify and implement cost-efficient, evidence-based criminal justice reforms. To do so, jurisdictions use data analysis to identify criminal justice population and cost drivers and then develop policy options to reduce those drivers. The 17 states that have adopted the JRI model are projected to save $3.3 billion over 10 years. States plan to reinvest a share of these savings into high-performing public safety strategies.
Race, Justifiable Homicide, and Stand Your Ground Laws: Analysis of FBI Supplementary Homicide Report Data (Research Report)
This study finds that homicides with a white perpetrator and a black victim are ten times more likely to be ruled justified than cases with a black perpetrator and a white victim, and the gap is larger in states with Stand Your Ground laws. After accounting for a variety of factors, such as whether the victim and perpetrator were strangers, the gap is smaller, but still significant. Cases with a white perpetrator and a black victim are 281 percent more likely to be ruled justified than cases with a white perpetrator and white victim.
A Statewide Evaluation of New York's Adult Drug Courts (Research Report)
This study finds that New York's drug courts have a modest positive impact on rearrest and reconviction. However, they differ significantly in policies and practices, resulting considerable variation in impact. The most effective drug courts served higher risk and felony defendants, maximized their legal leverage, imposed certain sanctions, included prosecutor and defense representatives on the drug court team, made greater use of residential treatment for key populations, and employed evidence-based practices. Findings were drawn from a sample of 86 drug courts statistically matched with conventional courts.
Opportunities for Police Cost Savings Without Sacrificing Service Quality: Reducing Fuel Consumption (Research Report)
Police vehicles burn a great deal of fuel while patrolling continuously. Various approaches have been proven to significantly reduce the amount of fuel used and its cost. Hybrid vehicles typically get two-three times higher mileage per gallon than conventional vehicles and have proven viable for policing, in many cities, including New York. Computers in vehicles that reduce trips back to stations, fuel-saving driving techniques (such as reducing idling), good vehicle maintenance (such as maintaining proper tire pressures), use of on-line reporting and other strategies such as community policing that require fewer vehicle trips also can reduce fuel consumption.
Costs of the Death Penalty: Testimony Before the Judiciary Committee Delaware Senate (Testimony)
John Roman's testimony before the Judiciary Committee of the State of Delaware Senate on the cost to a state of having the death penalty.
Collecting DNA from Arrestees: Implementation Lessons (Research Report)
Twenty-eight states and the federal government have enacted laws authorizing DNA collection from individuals arrested for or charged with certain offenses. Despite their widespread adoption, little is known about how these laws affect collecting agencies and crime laboratories responsible for their implementation. This article explores how key provisions in arrestee DNA legislation influence DNA collection and analysis. Information was derived from a review of state and federal laws and from interviews with crime laboratory representatives in 26 states that have passed arrestee DNA legislation. This data collection is part of an NIJ-funded Urban Institute project examining arrestee DNA collection.
Addressing Violence and Disorder around Alcohol Outlets (DCPI - Research and Analysis)
This report identifies methods for addressing violence and disorder around bars. We find that safe drinking environments and strong community partnerships are key buffers against alcohol-related crimes. Safer drinking environments can be fostered by training bouncers in conflict resolution, ensuring bar design does not create overcrowding, and enforcing laws restricting service to intoxicated persons aggressively. Building partnerships with local businesses and neighborhood groups creates public support both for setting bar safety standards and for closing bars that are chronically problematic. This project was funded by the Justice Grants Administration in the Executive Office of the Mayor.