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Reflections on the Crime Decline: Lessons for the Future? (Research Report)
Jeremy Travis, Michelle Waul

By the end of the 20th century, crime rates had fallen to their lowest levels in a generation. Yet, there is reason to believe that the dramatic declines of the late 1990s are over, and a new chapter is unfolding as crime rises in some cities, declines in others, and stabilizes in the nation as a whole. The Urban Institute convened a panel of leading crime researchers and national experts to explore the lessons to be learned from the remarkable crime decline of the 1990s and shed light on the next generation of crime policy discussions. "Reflections on the Crime Decline" presents a summary of those discussions. The report begins with an overview of long-term crime trends, examining separately the trends in violent and property crime. The final sections of the report summarize the insights and reflections of the panel on the explanations for the crime decline and implications for future research, practice and policy development.

Posted to Web: August 12, 2002Publication Date: August 12, 2002

California's Parole Experiment (Policy Briefs)
Jeremy Travis, Sarah Lawrence

[Copyright: California Journal, August 2002.] Over the past 25 years, the per capita rate of incarceration in America has increased four-fold. More than 2 million individuals are now locked up in prison or jail. The increase has taken on a unique twist in California, particularly in regard to its parole policy. Unlike many other states, nearly every prisoner released in California is placed on parole, and studies indicate the state has an especially tough policy on parole violators. As a result, California is now the national leader in returning parolees to prison and its return rate has increased 30 times between 1980 and 2000.

Posted to Web: August 01, 2002Publication Date: August 01, 2002

Invisible Punishment: An Instrument of Social Exclusion (Research Report)
Jeremy Travis

As the rates of imprisonment and criminal justice supervision have grown in America, another form of criminal sanction, the network of laws that limit the rights and privileges of ex-offenders, has also increased. These sanctions, called "invisible punishment," range from barriers to public housing for drug offenders to lifetime registration requirements for sex offenders. This book chapter describes the varieties of invisible punishment in modern America and the recent growth in these laws. The chapter argues that these sanctions reduce the chances of successful reintegration for ex-offenders and proposes a reform strategy.

Posted to Web: July 01, 2002Publication Date: July 01, 2002

The Practice and Promise of Prison Programming (Research Report)
Sarah Lawrence, Daniel P. Mears, Glenn Dubin, Jeremy Travis

This report includes a literature review on the effectiveness of educational, vocational, and work programs in prison on employment outcomes and recidivism, and it includes an inventory of prison programs in seven states from the Great Lakes region. The report also makes recommendations for strategic opportunities and identifies policy targets for increasing and enhancing prison-based programming.

Posted to Web: May 30, 2002Publication Date: May 30, 2002

Thoughts on the Future of Parole (Presentation)
Jeremy Travis

"It's time to end parole as we know it" is the provocative introduction of a recent speech by Jeremy Travis at the Vera Institute of Justice. In his remarks, Travis suggests replacing the current parole system with a two-part system that first focuses on preparing inmates for release and then supports them in the period immediately following release in order to facilitate reintegration into the community and reduce recidivism.

Posted to Web: May 22, 2002Publication Date: May 22, 2002

The Rise and Fall of American Youth Violence: 1980 to 2000 (Research Report)
Jeffrey A. Butts, Jeremy Travis

Researchers will debate for years why violent crime in the United States increased sharply in the 1980s and early 1990s before dropping just as precipitously in the mid- to late-1990s. All researchers agree, however, that general trends in violent crime during this period had much to do with changing rates of youth crime. With the recent release of crime data for the year 2000, it is possible to review crime trends over the entire span of years between 1980 and 2000. This report examines these trends and analyzes what portion of the recent crime drop can be attributed to juveniles (under age 18) and young adults (ages 18 to 24). The results demonstrate that while young people helped to generate the growth in violence before 1994, they contributed an even more disproportionate share to the decline in violence after 1994. Most of the recent decline in violent crime, in fact, was due to falling rates of violent crime among the young.

Posted to Web: March 28, 2002Publication Date: March 28, 2002

Background Paper: The Effect of Incarceration and Reentry on Children, Families, and Communities (Research Report)
Michelle Waul, Jeremy Travis, Amy L. Solomon

The From Prisons to Home Conference, held on January 30-31, 2002 at the National Institutes of Health, was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The purpose of the conference was to bring together the research, policy, and practice communities to share promising strategies, identify research needs, and inform federal program and policy development for children and families affected by the incarceration of a parent. Eleven papers were commissioned by leading experts to survey the state of knowledge on the dynamics of incarceration and reentry as seen from the perspectives of child, parent and community. This background paper provides the context for the "From Prison to Home" conference papers. It gives an overview of the issues discussed and includes abstracts of the 10 papers.

Posted to Web: January 30, 2002Publication Date: January 30, 2002

Youth, Guns, and the Juvenile Justice System (Research Report)
Jeffrey A. Butts, Mark Coggeshall, Caterina Gouvis Roman, Daniel P. Mears, Jeremy Travis, Michelle Waul, Ruth White

The falling rate of violent crime in the United States is not likely to reduce the need for effective policies and programs to address youth gun violence. The rate of firearm deaths among American youth is still one of the highest in the world. In the coming years, all levels of government, the private sector, and communities will require sound information and practical guidance as they try to reduce gun violence among young people. Funded by the Joyce Foundation, this report reviews recent trends in youth gun violence, policy responses to gun violence, and the growing variety of data resources for research on the effects of gun laws. The report is designed to inform discussions about these issues and to aid in the development of future research efforts.

Posted to Web: January 01, 2002Publication Date: January 01, 2002

Easing the Transition from Prison to Freedom: Community Roles (Radio Transcript)
Urban Institute, Jeremy Travis

Sixteen hundred prisoners are released from American prisons and jails everyday. This year some 600,000 prisoners will be released. There are about 2 million people currently incarcerated in the U.S., four times the number of people in prison in 1973. And most of them will be released at some point. And because the numbers are so much greater than they were 30 years ago, the concern about where these individuals go and what they do is therefore that much greater.

Posted to Web: November 19, 2001Publication Date: November 19, 2001

Prisoner Reentry Seen Through a Community Lens (Presentation)
Jeremy Travis

This year, 600,000 individuals will leave the prisons of our state and federal governments and return home. That is 1,600 a day. That is four times the number of people who made similar journeys from prison to home a short twenty years ago. That is more people than live here in the District of Columbia. We should not be surprised by this fact. After all, over the past generation, we have systematically, intentionally, increased the per capita rate of imprisonment in this country fourfold. And we know that, with rare exceptions, everyone who goes to prison returns home eventually.

Posted to Web: August 23, 2001Publication Date: August 23, 2001

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