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View Research by Author - Harold Salzman


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Self-Employment and Economic Mobility (Research Report)
Signe-Mary McKernan, Harold Salzman

Self-employment has held out the promise of economic mobility to generations of Americans. However, it is unclear whether the success stories of self-made men and women represent common experiences or exceptional cases. A more nuanced understanding of the contemporary experiences, outcomes, and impact of self-employment on mobility is necessary to properly evaluate the contribution self-employment makes to economic mobility in the U.S. population. This review describes the mechanisms by which self-employment may have mobility outcomes different from standard employment, paying particular attention to the substantial differences in self-employment effects across income, race, and gender subgroups. (Review 9 of 11.)

Posted to Web: April 03, 2008Publication Date: April 01, 2008

Globalization of R&D and Innovation: Implications for U.S. STEM Workforce and Policy: Testimony before the U.S. House Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation (Testimony)
Harold Salzman

Dr. Harold Salzman tells a House subcommittee on innovation and technology that new perspectives on competition and new routes for sharing knowledge freely across borders have prompted firms and universities to globalize. Salzman argues that globalization is not prompted by any deficiencies in the domestic supply of trained workers, and that "techno-nationalist" policies of the past are outdated and ineffective.

Posted to Web: November 06, 2007Publication Date: November 06, 2007

Into the Eye of the Storm: Assessing the Evidence on Science and Engineering Education, Quality, and Workforce Demand (Research Report)
B. Lindsay Lowell, Harold Salzman

Recent policy reports claim the United States is falling behind other nations in science and math education and graduating insufficient numbers of scientists and engineers. Review of the evidence and analysis of actual graduation rates and workforce needs does not find support for these claims. U.S. student performance rankings are comparable to other leading nations and colleges graduate far more scientists and engineers than are hired each year. Instead, the evidence suggests targeted education improvements are needed for the lowest performers and demand-side factors may be insufficient to attract qualified college graduates.

Posted to Web: October 29, 2007Publication Date: October 29, 2007

"Innovation Shift" to the Emerging Economies: Cases From IT and Heavy Industries (Occasional Paper)
Leonard Lynn, Harold Salzman

Current shifts of technology development work by multinationals to the emerging economies is now high-end (rather than adaptive) development. Our study of processes and outcomes of globally distributed engineering involves field work at 67 sites in eight countries. Based on our fieldwork we conclude that this new shift in the location of technology work at the top of the value chain is not only distinctive, but also disjunctive, not following past trajectories of offshoring. This is occurring as a matter of incremental value chain creep, rather than guided by "strategy." The consequences are not well conceptualized by managers and policymakers.

Posted to Web: October 12, 2007Publication Date: October 10, 2007

The Real Technology Challenge (Research Report)
Leonard Lynn, Harold Salzman

Growing the U.S. economy and maintaining its global economic strength depends on developing the “new breed” of technical and non-technical workers who can work across national, organizational, and cultural boundaries. The US economy is not threatened by the increase of scientists and engineers in China and India, nor is there a lack of qualified science and engineering graduates in the U.S. The best competitiveness policy would focus on strengthening basic education, on the performance of those at the bottom, on providing a broad-based education, and on developing a cohort of cosmopolitan scientists and engineers who will give the U.S. “collaborative advantage.”

Posted to Web: July 30, 2007Publication Date: July 30, 2007

Capital Access for Women: Profile and Analysis of U.S. Best Practice Programs (Research Report)
Harold Salzman, Signe-Mary McKernan, Nancy M. Pindus, Rosa Maria Castaneda

Capital access programs and funds for women starting and expanding their businesses have grown dramatically over the past decade. These programs cover the spectrum from microenterprise to venture capital funds and serve highly diverse populations. Thirteen "best practice" programs and three "promising practices" (new programs that appear innovative but do not yet have a track record) are profiled in this report and are the basis for our analysis of key success factors, barriers, and constraints faced by women entrepreneurs, and our policy recommendations. We profile and analyze the programs to share best practices and lessons learned so that successful programs can be replicated. Our analysis of these best practice programs identifies six areas that can improve the strength of all capital access programs and expand their reach.

Posted to Web: February 26, 2007Publication Date: December 01, 2006

Technology: More Than Degrees (Commentary)
Harold Salzman, Leonard Lynn

Hal Salzman and Leonard Lynn argue that recent reports warning of a rising threat posed by hordes of scientists and engineers graduating from Chinese and Indian universities are wrong on several counts, countering that rather than technonationalism, the United States should invest in education, research and development with a mind to the global community and markets.

Posted to Web: October 22, 2006Publication Date: October 22, 2006

Collaborative Advantage (Article)
Leonard Lynn, Harold Salzman

As the U.S. loses its monopoly in high technology, policymakers are calling for increases in the number of science and technology graduates and in R&D investment. We believe these proposals fail to recognize what is distinctive about the emerging global economy. Our studies of engineering in multinational home countries and in emerging economies suggest that the U.S. cannot match the numbers of engineers being trained in India and China, and it is not clear how much benefits to U.S. firms will help the U.S. economy. Instead, the U.S. should seek "collaborative advantage" by developing a new role in the global technology system. We should train "global engineers," support research where there is true comparative advantage, and develop mutual-gain partnerships. [This article appeared in the National Academies of Science journal Issues in Science and Technology Winter 2006. www.issues.org.]

Posted to Web: December 23, 2005Publication Date: December 23, 2005

The 'New' Globalization of Engineering: How the Offshoring of Advanced Engineering Affects Competitiveness and Development (Research Report)
Leonard Lynn, Harold Salzman

This paper examines offshoring of advanced engineering to emerging economies by multinational enterprises (MNEs) through case studies of U.S. and European MNE engineering development sites in China, India, and Mexico. We assess the offshoring of core technologies, impact on MNE engineering capabilities, and degree of technology transfer to emerging economies. We find significant technology transfer to emerging economies, but MNEs are developing multiple national identities, weakening their strong national ties and technology capabilities of their home countries. Although the global state of technology will benefit, it is less certain what the country-specific impact will be on jobs and economic growth.

Posted to Web: June 01, 2005Publication Date: June 01, 2005

When Firms Restructure: Understanding Work-Life Outcomes (Article)
Philip Moss, Harold Salzman, Chris Tilly

Analyses of work-life balance typically do not address the role of organizational structure but generally focus on individual worker attributes and a company's work-life policies. This paper focuses on the interrelationship among structural changes in industries and firms, managerial strategy, and jobs. This chapter appears in Work and Life Integration in Organizations and is based on our broader research on internal labor market changes over the past decade and the implications for the quality of jobs as a consequence of corporate restructuring in four industries. We find that although employer-driven restructuring is the predominant factor shaping job structure, and that changes in flexibility are usually collateral consequences rather than goals of restructuring, worker needs for job flexibility to accommodate work-life balance exert pressure on managers to structure jobs around those needs. The paper details those changes in jobs and career paths that affect the opportunities for work-life balance.

Posted to Web: August 31, 2004Publication Date: August 31, 2004

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